The Medical Department: Hospitalization and Evacuation, Zone of Interior

Title:
The Medical Department: Hospitalization and Evacuation, Zone of Interior
Format:
Hardcover
USA Price: 
$67.00
$33.50
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Stock:
In stock
GPO Stock Number:
008-029-00564-6
ISBN:
9780160920912
Description

This volume is one of several planned for a series on the history of the Medical Department of the United States Army during World War II. It deals primarily with the logistics of hospitalization and evacuation.

ITEM AVAILABLE DATE 10/15/13.

NOTE: NO FURTHER DISCOUNTS FOR ALREADY REDUCED SALE ITEMS.

Table of Contents

PART ONE: Hospitalization during the Emergency Period, 8 September 1939 - 7 December 1941
INTRODUCTION....................3

  • The State of Army Hospitalization, 1939 ...........3
  • Effect of the War in Europe..............6

I. ORGANIZATION AND RESPONSIBILITIES FOR HOSPITALIZATION...8

  • The Surgeon General's Position in the War Department......8
  • The Surgeon General's Office. ...............9
  • The Surgeon General's Control Over Hospitals and Hospital Units…..10

II. PLANNING FOR AND EXPANDING HOSPITALS IN THE UNITED STATES...13

  • Hospital Construction ..................13
  • Hospital Administration................. 26

III. PLANS AND PREPARATIONS FOR HOSPITALIZATION INVERSEAS AREAS..38

  • Mobilization Planning ..................38
  • Preparing Hospitalization for Overseas Areas During a Peacetime Mobilization...43

PART TWO: Hospitalization in the Early War Years, 7 December 1941- Mid-1943
INTRODUCTION ....................53

IV. CHANGES IN ORGANIZATION AND RESPONSIBILITIES FOR HOSPITALIZATION...54

  • Reorganization of the War Department ............ 54
  • The Surgeon General's New Position ............. 55
  • The Wadhams Committee .................61
  • Changes in the Surgeon General's Office ............61
  • A Dispute About General Planning for Hospitalization and Evacuation…..63

V. HOSPITAL PLANTS IN THE UNITED STATES.....68

  • Types of Construction ................... 68
  • Estimates of Hospital Capacity Needed ............78
  • Location, Siting, and Internal Arrangement of Hospital Plants.....88
  • Maintenance of Hospital Plants ...............94
  • Conformity of Hospital Construction to Needs.........100

VI. EARLY ADJUSTMENTS IN THE ZONE OF INTERIOR HOSPITAL SYSTEM...103

  • Command Relationships of Hospitals .............103
  • Special Types of ASF Station Hospitals ............109
  • Port and Debarkation Hospitals ...............113
  • Designation of General Hospitals for Specialized Treatment ....116
  • The Question of Establishing Convalescent Hospitals .......117

VII. MINOR CHANGES IN HOSPITAL ADMINISTRATION…..121

  • Question of Simplified Organization and Internal Administrative Procedures......121
  • Efforts To Shorten the Average Period of Hospitalization.....124
  • Early Changes in the Size and Composition of Hospital Staffs……131
  • Problem of Furnishing Supplies and Equipment for Hospitals………..137

VIII. PROVIDING HOSPITALIZATION FOR THEATERS OF OPERATIONS...140

  • Meeting Early Emergency Needs............140
  • Modification of Hospitals for Overseas Areas .........143
  • Hospital Units in the Troop Basis..............149
  • The Question of Equipping and Using Numbered Hospitals in the Zone of Interior...151
  • Preparing for the Support of Offensive Warfare .........160

PART THREE: Hospitalization in the Later War Years, Mid-1943—1946
INTRODUCTION.....169

IX. FURTHER CHANGES IN ORGANIZATION AND RESPONSIBILITIES FOR HOSPITALIZATION...171

  • Relationship of The Surgeon General With Other War Department Agencies...171
  • Expanding and Strengthening the Surgeon General's Office.....176

X. ADJUSTMENTS AND CHANGES IN THE ZONE OF INTERIOR HOSPITAL SYSTEM...181

  • Closure of Surplus Station Hospital Facilities. .........181
  • Establishment of Regional Hospitals .............182
  • Development of Convalescent Hospitals ............188
  • Merger of Adjacent Hospitals. ...............190
  • Attempts To Limit the Use of General Hospitals as Debarkation Hospitals...191
  • Extension of the Practice of Establishing Specialized Centers ....194
  • General Hospitals for Prisoners of War ............195
  • Establishment of Hospital Centers .............. 198

XI. BED REQUIREMENTS IN THE ZONE OF INTERIOR……200

  • First Attempts To Base Requirements on an Estimate of the Patient Load…201
  • Movement To Reduce the Number of Hospital Beds in the United States...202
  • Changes in the Manner of Reporting Beds ...........207
  • Meeting Increased Requirements for the Peak Patient Load. ....208

XII. ESTIMATING AND MEETING REQUIREMENTS OF THEATERS FOR HOSPITAL BEDS...214

  • Factors Influencing Bed Requirements.............214
  • Establishment of Bed Ratios for Theaters of Operations....216
  • Efforts To Provide Theaters With Authorized Quotas of Beds...218
  • Estimating Requirements for Major Combat Operations.....224
  • Movement to Reduce Authorized Bed Ratios........227
  • The Problem of the European Theater in the Winter of 1944-45.....234

XIII. CHANGES IN POLICIES AND PROCEDURES AFFECTING THE OCCUPANCY OF HOSPITAL BEDS IN THE ZONE OF INTERIOR...238

  • Problem of Limiting Hospital Admissions ...........238
  • Measures To Shorten the Length of Patient-Stay ........239

XIV. CHANGES IN SIZE AND MAKE-UP OF THE STAFFS OF ZONE OF INTERIOR HOSPITALS....248

  • General Nature of Changes. ................249
  • Wider Use of Administrative Officers ............250
  • Alleviation of the "Shortage" of Army Nurses...........251
  • Greater Use of Limited Service Men .............253
  • Replacement of Military by Civilian Employees ..........255
  • Use of Wacs in Army Hospitals. ...............256
  • Use of Prisoners of War in Army Hospitals ...........259

XV. IMPROVEMENTS IN THE INTERNAL ORGANIZATION AND ADMINISTRATION OF HOSPITALS IN THE UNITED STATES......261

  • Simplification of Administrative Procedures. ..........262
  • Work-Measurement and Work-Simplification Programs ......265
  • Additional Activities and Their Place in The Organizational Structure of Hospitals...266
  • Effect on Hospitals of the ASF Standard Plan for Post Organization…..267
  • Emergence of Standard Plans for Hospitals ..........268
  • Details of the Medical Department's Standard Plans .......271

XVI. CHANGES IN THE ORGANIZATION AND EQUIPMENT OF HOSPITAL UNITS PREPARED FOR OVERSEAS SERVICE.....279

  • Trend Toward Use of Larger Units .............279
  • Cuts in Personnel of Hospital Units .............280
  • New Hospital Units ...................282
  • Changes in Supplies and d Equipment .............283

XVII. HOSPITAL CONSTRUCTION AND MAINTENANCE....286

  • Providing Housing for Additional Beds in General and Convalescent Hospitals in the United States...287
  • Construction of Additional Facilities at Existing Hospital Plants…..289
  • Improvements in Existing Hospital Plants ............293
  • Housing for Hospitals in Theaters of Operations .........296

XVIII. RETURN TO A PEACETIME BASIS....300

  • Redeployment and Demobilization of Numbered Hospital Units.....300
  • Contraction of the Zone of Interior Hospital System ........302

PART FOUR: Evacuation to and in the Zone of Interior
INTRODUCTION ....................319

XIX. ESTIMATED AND ACTUAL REQUIREMENTS FOR EVACUATION FROM THEATERS OF OPERATIONS...323

XX. DEVELOPMENT OF PROCEDURES FOR EVACUATION FROM THEATERS TO THE ZONE OF INTERIOR...331

  • Procedures for Sea Evacuation................331
  • Procedures for Air Evacuation................337
  • Procedures for Debarkation ..................340

XXI. MOVEMENT OF PATIENTS IN THE UNITED STATES…..346

  • Regulating the Flow of Patients ..............346
  • Procedures for Rail Evacuation ................349
  • Procedures for Air Evacuation. ................357

XXII. PROVIDING THE MEANS FOR EVACUATION BY LAND…..360

  • Motor Ambulances .....................360
  • Hospital Trains. .....................369
  • Problems in Manning Hospital Trains .............388
  • Supplies and Equipment for Hospital Trains. ..........391

XXIII. PROVIDING THE MEANS FOR EVACUATION BY SEA……394

  • Ships' Hospitals and Hospital Ships ..............394
  • Medical Attendants for Service on Transports. ...........414
  • Hospital Ship Complements ................419
  • Problems in Providing Supplies and Equipment for Hospital Ships and Transports...422

XXIV. PROVIDING THE MEANS FOR EVACUATION BY AIR….. 426

  • Aircraft ........................426
  • Medical Flight Attendants .................437
  • Efforts To Supply Appropriate Equipment for Air Evacuation.....441

XXV. EVACUATION UNITS FOR THEATERS OF OPERATIONS….447

  • Organization, Personnel, and Equipment.............447
  • Activation, Training, and Use in the United States........457

SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS ............463
LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS ...............471
BIBLIOGRAPHICAL NOTE ............... 477
INDEX .........................485

TABLES
1. Comparison of the War Department's Plan and The Surgeon General's Recommendation for Fixed Beds for Theaters of Operations...40
2. Army Hospitals Established in Converted Civilian Buildings by End of 1943...73
3. Building Schedule for Type-A Hospital, General Hospital Plan……..77
4. Positions and Ranks in Zone of Interior Hospitals Permitted but not Required To Be Filled by Medical Administrative Corps Officers, 9 April 1941........132
5. Hospital Units Shipped Overseas, 7 December 1941 to 1 July 1942...144
6. Affiliated General Hospital Units ................157
7. Affiliated Evacuation Hospital Units ............... 158
8. Use of Nonaffiliated General Hospital Units Activated during 1941…….161
9. Use of Nonaffiliated Station Hospital Units Activated during 1941 ...….162
10. Use of Nonaffiliated Evacuation Hospital Units Activated during 1940 and 1941...163
11. Use of Nonaffiliated Surgical Hospital Units Activated during 1940 and 1941...164
12. ASF Debarkation Hospitals ..................193
13. Hospitalization Data as of 29 June 1945 ..............211
14. Evacuation Policies and Authorized Bed Ratios, Major Theaters of Operations...235
15. U. S. Army General Hospitals in the United States during World War II…304-13
16. Patients Debarked in the United States, 1920-45........324
17. Hospital Car Procurement Program, 1940-45 ..........374
18. United States Army Hospital Ships in World War II .......406

CHARTS
1. Status of Station and General Hospital Beds in Continental United States: August 1940-December 1941....25
2. Hospital Organization as Suggested by TM 8-260, July 1941 ........27
3. Organization of Lawson General Hospital, 1941 ..........29
4. The Surgeon General's Estimates in 1941-42 of Bed Requirements in General Hospitals in Continental United States and Actual Beds Reported January 1942-July 1944...85
5. Status of Station and General Hospital Beds in Continental United States: December 1941-June 1943...102
6. Organization of Baxter General Hospital Compared With Standard Plan for SOS Post Organization, 1942-43....125
7. Organization of the SGO for Hospitalization and Evacuation, 1943-45……179
8. Hospital Beds Authorized and Occupied by Type of Hospital in Continental United States: 1943 and 1944....204
9. Hospital Beds Authorized and Occupied, and Patients Reported in all Hospitals in the Continental United States: June 1944-December 1946………212
10. Hospital Beds Authorized and Occupied, and Patients Reported by Convalescent, Regional, General, and Station Hospitals in Continental United States: June 1944-December 1946...213
11. Fixed Hospital Bed Capacity and Occupancy in Overseas Theaters: March 1943-December 1945...220, 221
12. Organization of Mayo General Hospital, 1944...........269
13. Comparison of Standard Plans for Organization of ASF Posts and ASF General Hospitals, 1945...272
14. Standard Plan for Organization of ASF Convalescent Hospitals, 1945…….274
15. Organization of Percy Jones Hospital Center, 1945. ........276
16. Standard Plan for Organization of a Hospital Center (ZI), 1945……277

ILLUSTRATIONS
Plan for Cantonment-type Hospital .................16
Lawson General, a Cantonment-type Hospital ............17
Valley Forge General, a Semipermanent-type Hospital .........24
Plan for Theater-of-Operations-Type Hospital. ............71
Oliver General Hospital .....................72
Plan for Type A Hospital ....................74
Birmingham General, a Type A Hospital. ..............75
McGuire General, a VA-Type Hospital ...............79
Location of General, Convalescent, and Regional Hospitals During World War II....89
Placing the Fourth Litter Patient in a Field Ambulance ........362
Field and Metropolitan Ambulances Used in 1942. ..........363
Motor Ambulances ........................364
Exterior View of Multipatient Metropolitan Ambulance, 1945. .....368
Interior of the Multipatient Metropolitan Ambulance .........369
Stationary Beds in Hospital Ward Car, 1941 .............372
Dressing Room in Hospital Ward Dressing Car, 1942 .........375
Plans for Hospital Cars, 1941-42 ..................376
Plans for Rail Ambulance Car and New Hospital Unit Car .......384
Ward in New Hospital Unit Car, 1944. ...............386
Receiving Room in New Hospital Unit Car, 1944 ...........387
Surgical Ward on USAHS Shamrock .................408
Surgical Ward on USAHS Louis A. Milne ..............409
Dressing Station on USAHS Louis A. Milne .............410
The USAHS Larkspur .......................411
C-46 Transport Plane Ready To Unload Patients ...........429
Interior of C-46 Transport Plane ..................430
Interior of C-54 Transport Plane ..................431
Loading a Patient on an L-5 Plane.................436

Audience

This would be a valuable resource both to military members directly or indirectly concerned with the Army's medical service and to that large group of doctors and hospital administrators who face daily policy and management problems similar to those recounted here.

Product Details

Availability Details:
In Stock
USA Price:
$33.50
International Price:
$46.90
Publisher:
Defense Dept., Army, Center for Military History
Author:
  • Smith, Clarence McKittrick
Year/Pages:
2013: 528 p.; ill.
Key Phrases:
  • Center of Military History Publication 10 7
  • Medical History
  • Army History
  • United states Army in World War 2
  • World War 2
  • Military History
  • Medical Department
Weight:
3.25
Quantity Price:
Discount
Cover:
Cloth
Unit of Issue (US):
1
Unit of Issue (Non-US):
1
Item available Date:
09/13/2013
Last Status Update:
01/18/2018
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