Indonesia: A Country Study (Paperbound)

Indonesia: A Country Study (Paperbound)
Title:
Indonesia: A Country Study (Paperbound)
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Format:
Paperback
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In stock
GPO Stock Number:
030-000-00301-2
ISBN:
9780160919183
Description

This edition of Indonesia: A Country Study replaces the previous edition, published in 1993. Like its predecessor, this study attempts to review the history and treat in a concise manner the dominant social, political, economic, and military aspects of contemporary Indonesia. Sources of information included books, scholarly journals, foreign and domestic newspapers, official reports of governments and interna­tional organizations, and numerous periodicals and Web sites on Indo­nesian and Southeast Asian affairs. Authors: William H. Frederick and Robert L. Worden.

This volume is one in a continuing series of books prepared by the Federal Research Divison of the Library of Congress under the Country Studies/ Area Handbook Program, formerly sponsored by the Department of the Army and revived in FY 2004 with congressionally-man­dated funding under the sponsorship of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, Strategic Plans and Policy Directorate (J–5).

Most books in the series deal with a particular foreign country, describing and analyzing its political, economic, social, and national security systems and institutions, and examining the interrelationshps of those systems and the ways they are shaped by historical and cultural fac­tors. Each study is written by a multidisciplinary team of social scientists.

The authors seek to provide a basic understanding of the observed soci­ety, striving for a dynamic rather than a static portrayal. Particular atten­tion is devoted to the people who make up the society, their origins, dominant beliefts and values, their common interests and the issues on which they are divided, the nature and extent of their involvement with national institutions, and their attitudes toward each other and toward their social system and political order.

The books represent the analysis of the authors and should not be construed as an expression of an official U.S. government position, pol­icy, or decision. The authors have sought to adhere to accepted standards of scholarly objectivity. Corrections, additions, and suggestions for changes from readers will be welcomed for use in future editions.

Table of Contents

Foreword . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iii
Table B. Chronology of Important Events . . . . . . . . . . . . . xxiii
Table C. Metric Conversion Coefficients and Factors . . . . . xxix
Country Profile. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xxxi
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xxxix
Acknowledgments. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . v
Preface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xiii
Table A. Selected Acronyms and Contractions. . . . . . . . . . . xv
Chapter 1. Historical Setting. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
William H. Frederick
ORIGINS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
Early Inhabitation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
Social and Cultural Developments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
Expanding Networks. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
EARLY HEGEMONIES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
The Earliest Historical Records. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
Srivijaya and Mataram. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
THE RISE AND FALL OF MAJAPAHIT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
Successor Kingdoms of Java. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
Founding and Growth of Majapahit, 1268–1389 . . . . . 14
Outside Influences. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
THE EARLY MODERN ERA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
Commercial Developments. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
Westerners and Indigenous Powers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
The Role of the Dutch United East Indies Company,
1602–19. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
The Javanese and the VOC, 1619–1749 . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
Decline of the VOC, 1749–1816. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
DEVELOPMENT OF EUROPEAN COLONIAL RULE . . 30
End of the Ancien Régime in Java, 1816–34 . . . . . . . . 30
Establishment of the Colonial State. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
The Cultivation System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
MODERNISM AND NATIONALISM IN THE
The Rise of Education and Student Associations,
The Ethical Policy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
The Racial Issue . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
COLONIAL AGE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
1900–1920 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
Formation of Political Parties, 1911–27. . . . . . . . . . . . . 44
The Rise of Sukarno, 1921–26 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46
Colonial Government Reactions, 1927–40. . . . . . . . . . . 47
WAR AND EARLY INDEPENDENCE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
The Japanese Occupation, 1942–45. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
The National Revolution, 1945–49 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54
The Road to Guided Democracy, 1950–65 . . . . . . . . . . 60
The “Coup” and Its Aftermath, 1965–66 . . . . . . . . . . . . 69
CONTEMPORARY INDONESIA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72
Rise of the New Order, 1966–85 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72
Decline and Fall of the New Order, 1985–98. . . . . . . . . 83
Reformasi and the Post–New Order Era, 1998–2009. . . 85
Chapter 2. The Society and Its Environment. . . . . . . . . . . . . 95
Joel C. Kuipers
THE GEOGRAPHIC CONTEXT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98
National Territory: Rights, Responsibilities, and
EMERGING DYNAMICS OF INDONESIAN
Geographic Regions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98
Volcanoes and Earthquakes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99
Climate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102
Environmental Concerns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104
Challenges . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105
COMMUNITIES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107
Population. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107
Family. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109
National, Religious, and Local Authority. . . . . . . . . . . . 110
Urbanization and Decentralization. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111
Migration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112
Social Class . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114
Civil Society. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115
Violence, Vengeance, and Law . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117
RELIGION AND WORLDVIEW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118
Islam . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118
Christianity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121
Hinduism. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123
Buddhism. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125
Confucianism and Daoism. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 126
THE EMERGING NATIONAL CULTURE . . . . . . . . . . . . 126
Living Environments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 126
Language . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 128
Food, Clothing, and Popular Culture. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 129
SOURCES OF LOCAL IDENTIFICATION . . . . . . . . . . . . 130
Tradition and Multiethnicity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 130
Javanese. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 132
Balinese . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 137
Peoples of Sumatra . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 139
Ethnic Minorities. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 142
EDUCATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 150
Primary and Secondary Education . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 150
Islamic Schools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 153
Higher Education. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 154
HEALTH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 156
Services and Infrastructure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 156
Government Support . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 158
Traditional and Modern Health Practices . . . . . . . . . . . 159
Major Health Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 159
Pharmaceuticals. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 160
Public Sanitation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 161
SOCIETY’S PROSPECTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 161
Chapter 3. The Economy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 163
J. Thomas Lindblad
THE ROLE OF GOVERNMENT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 166
The Political Economy of Reform. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 167
Financial Reform. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 169
Industrial and Trade Reform . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 172
Crisis Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 174
Postcrisis Reform. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 177
GOVERNMENT FINANCE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 180
Central Government Budget . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 180
Decentralization. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 183
Monetary and Exchange-Rate Policy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 185

INDONESIA IN THE GLOBAL ECONOMY . . . . . . . . . . . 188
The Changing Nature of Trade and Aid. . . . . . . . . . . . . 188
Principal Trade Relationships. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 191
EMPLOYMENT AND INCOME . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 192
AGRICULTURE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 197
Food Crops. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 198
Export Crops. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 199
Livestock . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 202
Fishing and Forestry. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 202
INDUSTRY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 205
Foreign Inputs. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 206
Small-Scale Industry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 209
MINERALS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 210
Petroleum and Natural Gas. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 210
Other Minerals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 212
SERVICES AND INFRASTRUCTURE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 214
Transportation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 215
Post and Telecommunications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 219
Electric Power . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 220
ECONOMIC PROSPECTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 221
Chapter 4. Government and Politics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 225
Blair A. King
THE POLITICAL DEBATE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 229
THE CONSTITUTIONAL FRAMEWORK . . . . . . . . . . . . . 231
THE STRUCTURE OF GOVERNMENT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 234
Legislative Bodies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 235
The Executive. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 241
The Judiciary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 244
Independent Bodies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 246
Local Government . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 247
POLITICAL CULTURE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 253
Inclusionary Coalitions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 254
Consensus-Based Decision Making. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 256
Traditional Political Culture. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 257
Islamic Political Culture. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 258
Pancasila: The State Ideology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 260
THE POLITICAL PROCESS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 262
The Multiparty System: Significant Pluralism. . . . . . . . 263
Secular Nationalist Parties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 264

Muslim Parties. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 268
Islamist Parties. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 271
Elections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 275
Political Dynamics. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 279
THE MEDIA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 286
FOREIGN POLICY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 288
Political Considerations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 288
Participation in ASEAN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 290
Relations with Neighboring Nations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 295
Relations with East Asia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 301
Relations with the United States . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 303
CONSOLIDATING DEMOCRACY, CONTRIBUTING TO GLOBAL PEACE . . .305
Chapter 5. National Security. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 307
John B. Haseman
HISTORICAL CONTEXT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 312
Independence and the Sukarno Period, 1945–65. . . . . . 312
Suharto’s New Order, 1966–98. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 315
POST-SUHARTO REFORMS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 319
East Timor. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 321
Separatist Rebellions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 323
Ethnic and Religious Conflict . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 328
Terrorism. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 329
THE ARMED FORCES IN NATIONAL LIFE . . . . . . . . . . 330
Political and Administrative Role . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 332
Participation in the Economy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 332
Total People’s Defense . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 334
Defense Spending and the Defense Industry. . . . . . . . . 335
Personnel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 338
ORGANIZATION AND EQUIPMENT OF THE ARMED FORCES . . . . 339
Administrative and Command Structure . . . . . . . . . . . . 339
Military Education. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 343
Branches of Service. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 344
Conditions of Service . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 349
Women in the Armed Forces. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 349
Uniforms, Ranks, and Insignia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 350
FOREIGN MILITARY RELATIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 350
SECURITY AND INTELLIGENCE AGENCIES . . . . . . . . 354

THE NATIONAL POLICE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 355
THE CRIMINAL JUSTICE SYSTEM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 358
Crime and Political Offenses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 359
Criminal Law and Proceedings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 359
Administration of Criminal Justice . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 360
Penal System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 362
Narcotics and Counternarcotics Operations . . . . . . . . . . 363
NATIONAL SECURITY IN THE CONTEMPORARY ERA . . .  . . 363
Bibliography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 367
Glossary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 405
Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 413
Contributors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 437
Published Country Studies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43

Audience

Analysts studying Indonesia, military and government staff, students, teachers, and members of the general public interested in learning more about the history of Indonesia would enjoy this publication.

Product Details

Availability Details:
In Stock
USA Price:
$16.00
International Price:
$22.40
Publisher:
Library of Congress, Federal Research Division
Author:
  • Frederick, William H.
Key Phrases:
  • Indonesia
  • Country Study
Weight:
1.625
Quantity Price:
Discount
Cover:
Paper
Unit of Issue (US):
1
Unit of Issue (Non-US):
1
Record Creation Date:
07/02/2013
Last Status Update:
03/07/2019
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