2019 Report to Congress of the U.S.-China Economic and Security Review Commission Executive Summary and Recommendations, 116th Congress First Session

2019 Report to Congress of the U.S.-China Economic and Security Review Commission Executive Summary and Recommendations, 116th Congress First Session
2019 Report to Congress of the U.S.-China Economic and Security Review Commission Executive Summary and Recommendations, 116th Congress First Session
USA Price: 
Low stock
GPO Stock Number:

In 2019, the trade dispute between the United States and China entered its second year and remains mostly unresolved. The Chinese government’s unwavering commitment to state management of its economy remains a major stumbling block. In response to decades of unfair economic practices, the United States wants the Chinese government to codify commitments to strengthen intellectual property protection, prohibit forced technology transfer, and remove industrial subsidies. But these practices are core features of China’s economic system, and the Chinese government views U.S. demands as an attack on its national development. China continues to ignore the letter and the spirit of its World Trade Organization (WTO) commitments. The resulting impasse has led to multiple rounds of mutual tariff actions impacting more than $500 billion in bilateral goods trade, and reducing trade between the two countries.

Table of Contents

 Transmittal Letter to the Congress iii

Commissioners Approving the Report  v

Executive Summary  1

Key Recommendations 24

Introduction  29

2019 Report to Congress of the U.S.-China Economic and Security Review Commission Chapter 1: 2019 in Review 33

Section 1: Year in Review: Economics and Trade 33

Key Findings 33

Introduction  34

U.S.-China Trade 34

Bilateral Economic Tensions  38

Technological Conflict and Competition 46

China’s Internal and External Economic Management 49

Section 2: Year in Review: Security, Politics, and Foreign Affairs 80

Key Findings  80

Introduction 81

A Year of Both Success and Setback 81

Chinese Diplomacy: Toward a China-Led World Order 89

Pressure on the Regional Balance 100

Tensions in U.S.-China Ties  104

Chapter 2: Beijing’s Internal and External Challenges 119

Key Findings119

Recommendations  120

Introduction 120

Internal Challenges to CCP Rule 121

China’s Economic and Innovation Challenges 130

Resistance to Beijing’s Ambitions Abroad: Economic, Military, and Political Challenges 136

Implications for the United States153

Chapter 3: U.S.-China Competition  169

Section 1: U.S.-China Commercial Relations 169

Key Findings 169

Recommendations 170

Introduction 171

U.S.-China Economic Ties: An Unbalanced Relationship 171

Chinese Companies in the United States  172

U.S. Companies in China 182

Implications for the United States 191

Section 2: Emerging Technologies and Military-Civil Fusion: Artificial Intelligence, New Materials, and New Energy 205

Key Findings 205

Recommendations 206

Introduction  207

VIII Page Military-Civil Fusion214

New and Advanced Materials  220

Energy Storage  226

Civil Nuclear Powers 229

Implications for the United States  230

Section 3: Growing U.S. Reliance on China’s Biotech and Pharmaceutical Products. 248

Key Findings 248

Recommendations  249

Introduction  250

U.S. Reliance on Chinese Pharmaceutical and Medical Products  251

U.S. Government Oversight of Health Imports from China 257

China’s Pharmaceutical and Biotech Activities in the United States 261

U.S. Companies’ Access to Health Industries and Market Opportunities in China  265

U.S.-China Global Health Cooperation 269

Implications for the United States  269

Chapter 4: China’s Global Ambitions 283

Section 1: Beijing’s “World-Class” Military Goal 283

Key Findings 283

Recommendations  285

A Military to Match Beijing’s Ambitions. 285

Building a World-Class Military  288

A World-Class Military in Its Region and Beyond 296

Implications for the United States  303

Section 2: An Uneasy Entente: China- Russia Relations in a New Era of Strategic Competition with the United States .315

Key Findings 315

Recommendations 316

Introduction .316

A Deepening Entente 317

Mistrust and Power Asymmetry Limit Ties  327

Central Asia and Afghanistan, the Middle East, and the Arctic. 335

Implications for the United States 343

Section 3: China’s Ambitions in Space: Contesting the Final Frontier  359

Key Findings 359

Recommendations 360

Introduction 361

National Rejuvenation and a “Space Dream” 362

Space Program Supports Geopolitical and Economic Goals  368

Space as the “Commanding Heights” of Future Military Conflict 379

Implications for the United States .383

Section 4: Changing Regional Dynamics: Oceania and Singapore  401

Key Findings  401

Recommendations 402

Introduction 402

Australia  403

Pacific Islands 418

Singapore. 424

Implications for the United States  431

Chapter 5: Taiwan. 445

Key Findings  445

Recommendations  446

Introduction  447

Cross-Strait Military and Security Issues 449

Taiwan’s External Relations  458

Economics and Trade 463

Implications for the United States 470

IX Page Chapter 6: Hong Kong . 481

Key Findings  481

Recommendations  482

Introduction .483

Proposed Extradition Bill Galvanizes Calls for Democracy 484

Hong Kong’s Autonomy under Continued Attack  496

Hong Kong’s Economic Relationship with Mainland China  505

Implications for the United States. 513

Comprehensive List of the Commission’s Recommendations 537

Appendices: Appendix I: Charter . 547

Appendix II: Background of Commissioners 555

Appendix III: Public Hearings of the Commission During 2019 565

Appendix IIIA: List of Witnesses Testifying Before the Commission During 2019  569

Appendix IV: List of Research Material 573

Appendix V: Conflict of Interest and Lobbying Disclosure Reporting  577

Appendix VI: Acronyms and Abbreviations 579

2019 Commission Staff and Acknowledgements 581

Product Details

Availability Details:
In Stock
USA Price:
International Price:
U.S.-China Economic and Security Review Commission
Key Phrases:
  • China
  • Annual Reports, U.S.-China Economic and Security Review Commission
Quantity Price:
Unit of Issue (US):
Unit of Issue (Non-US):
Record Creation Date:
Last Status Update:
Back to Top