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United States Army in World War 2, Special Studies, Manhattan, the Army, and the Atomic Bomb (Clothbound)

Title:
United States Army in World War 2, Special Studies, Manhattan, the Army, and the Atomic Bomb (Clothbound)
Format:
Hardcover
USA Price: 
Stock:
In stock
GPO Stock Number:
008-029-00132-2
ISBN:
9780160019395
Description

The U.S. Army played a key role in the formation and administration of the Manhattan Project, the World War II organization which produced the atomic bombs that not only contributed decisively to ending the war with Japan but also opened the way to a new atomic age.

The volume begins with a prologue, designed to provide the reader with a brief survey of the history of atomic energy and to explain in layman’s terms certain technical aspects of atomic science essential to an understanding of the major problems occurring in the development of an atomic weapon.

Early chapters describe the beginning of the Army’s atomic mission, including the formation of the Manhattan District, the first steps in acquiring the means to produce atomic weapons and the appointment of General Groves.  Subsequent topical chapters trace the building and operation of the large-scale process plants for the production of fissionable materials; the administration of a broad range of support activities, such as security and community management; and the fabrication, testing, and combat employment of atomic bombs.  A concluding section describes how the Army dealt with the difficult problems arising during its unexpectedly prolonged postwar trusteeship of the project until December 1946, when the newly created civilian agency – the United States Atomic Energy Commission – assumed responsibility for atomic energy matters.

Other related products:

Building the Bombs: A History of the Nuclear Weapons Complex is available here: https://bookstore.gpo.gov/products/sku/061-000-00968-0

Autonomous Weapon Systems: A Brief Survey of Developmental, Operational, Legal, and Ethical Issues is available here: https://bookstore.gpo.gov/products/sku/008-000-01177-0

United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission Information Digest 2010-2011 -Print Paperback format can be found here: https://bookstore.gpo.gov/products/sku/052-020-01029-3

World War II resources collection can be found here: https://bookstore.gpo.gov/catalog/us-military-history/battles-wars/world...

Other products produced by the U.S. Army, Center of Military History (CMH) can be found here: https://bookstore.gpo.gov/agency/1061

Table of Contents

Table of Contents:

PROLOGUE: A HISTORY OF ATOMIC ENERGY TO 1939.................. 3

Uranium and Fission..................................................................... 8

Efforts To Enlist Support of the U.S. Government............................ 12

Part One: Beginnings of the Atomic Mission

Chapter

I. THE ARMY AND THE ATOMIC ENERGY PROGRAM,

1939-1942..................................................................................... 19

Origins of the Army's Role ............................................................. 19

Decision To Develop Atomic Weapons.............................................. 21

Establishment of the NDRC and OSRD.......................................... 26

New Advances in Atomic Research, 1940-1941 .............................. 28

Top Policy Group: Preparing for Army Take Over ............................ 30

Progress in Research and Development: The Nuclear Steeplechase ....... 35

II. ESTABISHING THE MANHATTAN DISTRICT .................... 40

Organizing the District................................................................... 41

Army-OSRD Planning Meeting, 25 June 1942 ............................... 46

Progress in Research and Development............................................. 50

III. FIRST STEPS FOR WEAPON DEVELOPMENT ....................... 55

Securing an Architect-Engineer-Manager ......................................... 55

Obtaining Funds........................................................................... 56

Securing a Priority Rating ............................................................. 57

Procuring Essential Materials......................................................... 61

Site Selection................................................................................. 67

Reaching Decisions: The Meeting at Bohemian Grove ....................... 70

IV. GENERAL GROVES TAKES COMMAND.................................. 73

Reorganization and the Selection of Groves ...................................... 73

First Measures .............................................................................. 78

Establishment of Los Alamos .......................................................... 82

Manhattan Project Organization and Operation ............................... 88

Part Two: Producing Fissionable Materials

V. ORGANIZING FOR PRODUCTION........................................... 95

Plutonium Project.......................................................................... 95

Reassessment of Processes To Produce a Bomb .................................. 101

Contract Negotiations..................................................................... 105

Hanford Engineer Works ............................................................... 108

Plutonium Semiworks: Argonne vs. Tennessee ................................... 111

Program Funding.......................................................................... 115

VI. THE ELECTROMAGNETIC PROCESS ..................................... 117

Electromagnetic Research and the Army, 1942-1943 ....................... 118

Research and Development, 1943-1945: Radiation Laboratory ........ 120

Design and Engineering, 1943-1945 ............................................. 126

Building the Electromagnetic Plant.................................................. 130

Plant Operation ............................................................................ 140

VII. THE GASEOUS DIFFUSION PROCESS .................................... 149

Gaseous Diffusion Research and the Army, 1942-1943.................... 149

Design and Engineering................................................................. 150

Building the Gaseous Diffusion Plant.............................................. 159

Plant Operation ............................................................................ 165

VIII. THE LIQUID THERMAL DIFFUSION PROCESS..................... 172

Research and Development: The Role of the Navy ............................ 172

Reassessment: Decision for Full-scale Development............................. 174

Plant Design, Engineering, and Construction ................................... 178

Plant Operation ............................................................................ 180

IX. THE PILE PROCESS ................................................................... 184

Research and Development: Metallurgical Laboratory........................ 185

Organization for Plutonium Production............................................ 198

The Semiworks: Clinton Laboratories............................................... 204

The Hanford Production Plant....................................................... 210

Part Three: Support Activities

X. ANGLO-AMERICAN COLLABORATION.................................. 227

Breakdown of Interchange .............................................................. 227

The Quebec Agreement................................................................... 232

Implementing the Agreement............................................................ 242

New Partnership Strains: Repatriation of French Scientists................ 248

XI. SECURITY.................................................................................... 253

Early Aspects ............................................................................... 253

The District's Security System.......................................................... 254

Counterintelligence Activities........................................................... 259

Safeguarding Military Information.................................................. 268

XII. FOREIGN INTELLIGENCE OPERATIONS............................... 280

Organization of the ALSOS Mission ............................................... 280

ALSOS Operations in Italy ............................................................ 281

Manhattan's Special Intelligence Activities, 1944............................. 282

ALSOS Operations in Western Europe, 1944-1945......................... 285

XIII. THE RAW MATERIALS PROGRAM.......................................... 292

Geographic Search and Field Exploration......................................... 292

Ore Control Agency: Combined Development Trust............................ 295

Ore Acquisition in Foreign Areas..................................................... 299

XIV. THE FEED MATERIALS PROGRAM ......................................... 307

Program Organization and Support Activities................................... 307

Feed Materials Procurement............................................................ 310

Feed Materials Production.............................................................. 314

Quality Control Program................................................................ 317

XV. LAND ACQUISITION.................................................................. 319

Clinton Engineer Works................................................................. 319

Los Alamos................................................................................... 328

Hanford Engineer Works ............................................................... 331

Other Sites.................................................................................... 342

XVI. MANPOWER PROCUREMENT .................................................. 344

Personnel Organization .................................................................. 345

Scientific and Technical Personnel................................................... 348

Industrial Labor............................................................................ 350

Civilian and Military Personnel...................................................... 355

XVII. MANPOWER CONSERVATION................................................. 363

Labor Turnover: The Problem and Its Cure ..................................... 363

Special Problems With the Selective Service System ............................ 366

Labor Relations: Union Activities and Work Stoppages ..................... 369

XVIII. ELECTRIC POWER..................................................................... 377

Power Requirements and Sources..................................................... 377

Implementation of the Power Program ............................................. 386

Distribution: Clinton Engineer Works.............................................. 388

Distribution: Hanford Engineer Works ............................................ 391

XIX. COMMUNICATIONS AND TRANSPORTATION..................... 394

Communications............................................................................ 394

Transportation.............................................................................. 397

XX. HEALTH AND SAFETY .............................................................. 410

The Health Program...................................................................... 411

The Safety Program....................................................................... 426

XXI. THE ATOMIC COMMUNITIES IN TENNESSEE ..................... 432

Oak Ridge: The Operating Community ............................................ 432

The Construction Camps ................................................................ 440

Community Management................................................................ 443

XXII. THE ATOMIC COMMUNITIES IN WASHINGTON STATE... 450

Selecting Sites................................................................................ 450

Hanford: The Construction Camp ................................................... 452

Richland: The Operating Community .............................................. 456

Community Management................................................................ 460

XXIII. THE ATOMIC COMMUNITIES IN NEW MEXICO.................. 465

Los Alamos: The Operating Community ........................................... 465

Trinity: The Base Camp................................................................. 478

Part Four: The Bomb

XXIV. THE LOS ALAMOS WEAPON PROGRAM................................ 485

Planning Phase............................................................................. 485

Laboratory Administration.............................................................. 491

Post Administration ....................................................................... 496

XXV. WEAPON DEVELOPMENT AND TESTING.............................. 503

Building the Bomb......................................................................... 503

Project Trinity: The Test of the Bomb.............................................. 511

XXVI. THE ATOMIC BOMBING OF JAPAN........................................ 519

Preparations for an Atomic Bombing Mission ................................... 519

The Decision To Use the Bomb ....................................................... 530

Dropping the Bomb........................................................................ 534

The Surrender of Japan.................................................................. 541

Survey of the Bombing Effects......................................................... 543

Part Five: Completing the Atomic Mission

XXVII. THE ATOMIC AGE AND ITS PROBLEMS ............................... 553

The Atomic Story: Informing the Public ........................................... 553

Atomic Energy: Planning for Postwar Control.................................. 562

XXVIII. THE ARMY AND THE ATOMIC ENERGY PROGRAM,

1945-1947..................................................................................... 579

A Postwar Trusteeship ................................................................... 579

The Final Act: Transfer to Civilian Control..................................... 596

EPILOGUE: AN ATOMIC LEGACY.......................................................... 602

APPENDIX—EINSTEIN'S LETTER .......................................................... 609

BIBLIOGRAPHICAL NOTE ...................................................................... 611

GUIDE TO ARCHIVAL COLLECTIONS ................................................. 627

LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS....................................................................... 631

INDEX.......................................................................................................... 643

TABLES

CHARTS

MAPS

ILLUSTRATIONS

Audience

For both soldiers and civilians this history of the Army's earlier experience in dealing successfully with the then novel problems of atomic science seems likely to offer some instructive parallels for finding appropriate answers to the problems faced in today's ever more technologically complex world.  This publication is appropriate for members of government, policymakers, historians, students studying military history/WWII history/history of nuclear engineering, and people in the technology and engineering sectors.  In addition, this publication would be of interest to members of the general public with an interest in the history of the Manhattan Project, WWII, the military, atomic energy and its use in military functions.

Product Details

Availability Details:
In Stock
USA Price:
$14.00
International Price:
$19.60
Publisher:
Defense Dept., Army, Center of Military History
Author:
  • Jones, Vincent C.
Year/Pages:
1985: 660 p.; ill.
Key Phrases:
  • Special Studies
  • Military History
  • Army History
Weight:
4.25
Quantity Price:
Discount
Cover:
Cloth
Unit of Issue (US):
1
Unit of Issue (Non-US):
1
Item available Date:
10/02/2007
Last Status Update:
03/17/2017
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