Striking The Balance: Us Army Force Posture In Europe, 2028- A Study Sponsored By The Office Of The Secretary Of The Army

Striking The Balance: Us Army Force Posture In Europe, 2028- A Study Sponsored By The Office Of The Secretary Of The Army
Striking The Balance: US Army Force Posture In Europe, 2028- A Study Sponsored By The Office Of The Secretary Of The Army
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Within the context of Europe, the US Army must develop a force posture that best navigates the tensions between deterring or defeating armed conflict at acceptable cost, successfully competing below armed conflict, and maintaining global responsiveness and institutional flexibility through the global operating model and dynamic force employment. While Russia’s economy, and consequently military capability will likely shrink over the next 10 years, which can make them more dangerous as the Kremlin continues to try to punch above its weight. The ideal force posture needs to accomplish a range of on-going and contingency missions and also be adaptive enough to remain viable despite any number of potential swings in resources, military balance, or the domestic politics of allies. This study recommends five possible strategic approaches and specifies what conditions and priorities optimize each.


Table of Contents

Striking the Balance: US Army Force Posture in Europe, 2028  iii

Foreword ix

Executive Summary xi                                                                                       

The Challenge xi

Political and Operational Context: Russia and Europe xi

Russia. xi

Europe  xii

Building Blocks of Force Posture: Levers  xiii

Organizing the Levers: Proposed Strategic Approaches xiv

Assessing the Strategic Approaches: Decision Criteria and Risk Factors xv

Recommendations  xvi

Chapter 1. Introduction 1

Scope and Conceptual Approach 1

Strategic Foundation: National Defense Strategy 1

Operational Foundation: Multidomain Operations and Echelons above Brigade Concepts 3

Methodology and Organization 4

Chapter 2. A Strategic and Operational Analysis of Russia in 2028 7

Evolution of Russian Military Capabilities 10

Development of the Future Russian Force 11

Hybrid War: Overcoming Conventional Shortcomings with Nonmilitary Means 16

The Diplomatic Instrument of Russia’s National Power 16

The Economic Instrument of Russia’s National Power 17

US Army War College The Information Instrument of Russia’s National Power 18

Competition at the Level of Armed Conflict: The Gray Zone 20

Russia’s Nuclear Policy 22

Conclusion  23

Chapter 3. A Strategic and Operational Analysis of Europe in 2028:

Defining Allies and Partners 25

Divided Threat Perceptions 28

Current NATO Posture and Capabilities 29

NATO Trends 31

Interoperability 32

Integration 33

Hybrid and Cyber Capabilities 35

European Union (EU) Trends and Developments 36

Headwinds for the EU 37

Restraints on US Courses of Action 38

Conclusion 39

Chapter 4.

US Military Capabilities and Options  41

Current US Capabilities and Force Posture  42

Capabilities Required for Multidomain Operations in 2028 48

Calibrated Force Posture Lever s 50

Multidomain Command and Control (MDC2) 50

Long-Range Fires Capability 55

Brigade Combat Teams 57

Activity Footprin 63


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Department of the Army,Army War College,Strategic Studies Institute(SSI)
  • Clark, J.P.
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  • Army War College
  • Army SSI
  • National Strategy and Policy Community and Academia
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