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Soil Survey Manual (March 2017)

Title:
Soil Survey Manual (March 2017)
Format:
Hardcover
USA Price: 
Stock:
In stock
GPO Stock Number:
001-000-04779-5
ISBN:
9780160937439
Description

This manual is a revision and enlargement of U.S. Department of Agriculture Handbook No. 18, the Soil Survey Manual, previously issued October 1962 and October 1993. This version supersedes both previous versions.

Table of Contents

List of Figures ................................................................................vii

List of Tables.................................................................................xvii

Introduction to the Fourth Edition......................................xxiii

Purpose ........................................................................................xxiii

Need for Additions and Revisions................................................ xxv

Online Access.............................................................................xxvii

Citation and Authorship..............................................................xxvii

Acknowledgements...................................................................xxviii

References.................................................................................xxviii

Chapter 1.—Soil and Soil Survey............................................. 1

Soil Survey—Definition and Description......................................... 1

Early Concepts of Soil...................................................................... 3

Early Development of Soil Classification ........................................ 7

Modern Concept of Soil ................................................................... 8

Development of Soil Taxonomy....................................................... 9

Scientific Foundation of Soil Survey.............................................. 10

Development of the Soil Survey in the U.S. .................................. 13

References...................................................................................... 18

Chapter 2.—Landscapes, Geomorphology, and Site Description................................................................................ 21

Introduction .................................................................................... 21

Capturing Soil-Landscape Relationships at Various Scales........... 25

Placing Soil-Landscape Relationships in Their Proper Context .... 28

Consistently Describing Landscapes, Landforms, and Geomorphology ....................................................................... 30

Parent Material ............................................................................... 53

Bedrock .......................................................................................... 66

Lithostratigraphic Units.................................................................. 69

Erosion............................................................................................ 70

Land Cover..................................................................................... 77

Vegetation....................................................................................... 78

Ecological Sites.............................................................................. 79

Integrated Natural Resource Inventories........................................ 80

References...................................................................................... 80

Chapter 3.—Examination and Description of Soil Profiles........................................................................................ 83

Introduction .................................................................................... 83

General Terms Used to Describe Soils........................................... 84

Studying Pedons............................................................................. 87

Designations for Horizons and Layers........................................... 91

Near Surface Subzones................................................................. 114

Root-Restricting Depth................................................................. 118

Particle-Size Distribution ............................................................. 119

Soil Texture .................................................................................. 120

Rock Fragments and Pararock Fragments.................................... 131

Artifacts........................................................................................ 137

Compound Texture Modifiers....................................................... 140

Fragments on the Surface ............................................................. 141

Soil Color ..................................................................................... 145

Soil Structure................................................................................ 155

Internal Ped and Void Surface Features........................................ 163

Concentrations.............................................................................. 168

Pedogenic Carbonates ................................................................. 173

Redoximorphic Features............................................................... 177

Consistence................................................................................... 180

Roots............................................................................................. 193

Pores............................................................................................. 195

Animals ........................................................................................ 197

Selected Chemical Properties....................................................... 198

Soil Water..................................................................................... 205

Soil Temperature .......................................................................... 228

References.................................................................................... 230

Chapter 4.—Soil Mapping Concepts................................... 235

Soil Mapping Process................................................................... 235

Field Operation and Equipment ................................................... 241

Soil Survey Manual iii Soil Identification and Classification............................................ 245

Soil Map Units.............................................................................. 248

Kinds of Map Units...................................................................... 256

Minor Components Within Map Units......................................... 260

Designing and Documenting Map Units...................................... 262

Naming Map Units....................................................................... 265

Orders of Soil Surveys ................................................................. 268

Correlation Steps.......................................................................... 276

Quality Control and Quality Assurance........................................ 280

Records and Documentation ........................................................ 281

Soil Handbook.............................................................................. 284

Soil Maps Made by Other Methods ............................................. 289

Supporting Data............................................................................ 291

References.................................................................................... 292

Chapter 5.—Digital Soil Mapping......................................... 295

Principles and Concepts ............................................................... 295

Stages and Processes.................................................................... 299

Applications of Digital Soil Mapping .......................................... 341

Summary ...................................................................................... 346

References.................................................................................... 346

Chapter 6.—Tools for Proximal Soil Sensing ................. 355

Introduction .................................................................................. 355

Common Geophysical Methods................................................... 356

Less Common Proximal Sensing Methods .................................. 376

References.................................................................................... 387

Chapter 7.—Soil Survey Data Collection, Management, and Dissemination.................................. 395

Introduction .................................................................................. 395

Automated Data Processing in Soil Survey ................................. 396

Recording Data and Information—Field and Lab........................ 400

Soil Information Systems............................................................. 415

History of Soil Data Management in the U.S............................... 421

References.................................................................................... 432

Chapter 8.—Interpretations: The Impact of Soil Properties on Land Use..................................................... 433

Introduction .................................................................................. 433

Interpretive Models ...................................................................... 436

Current U.S. Interpretive System ................................................. 440

Map Units and Soil Interpretations .............................................. 446

Interpretive Soil Properties........................................................... 449

Dynamic Soil Properties............................................................... 456

Interpretive Applications.............................................................. 457

Areal Application of Interpretations............................................. 475

References.................................................................................... 478

Chapter 9.—Assessing Dynamic Soil Properties and Soil Change.................................................................... 481

Importance of DSPs...................................................................... 481

How to Collect DSPs for Soil Survey .......................................... 483

Data Collection Plan..................................................................... 489

Analyzing Dynamic Soil Property Data....................................... 497

Summary of DSPs in Soil Survey ................................................ 501

References.................................................................................... 502

Chapter 10.—Subaqueous Soil Survey ............................. 505

Introduction .................................................................................. 505

Sampling, Description, Characterization, and Classification....... 506

Soil-Landscape Relationships ...................................................... 513

Survey Methods and Procedures.................................................. 516

Significance of Subaqueous Soil Information.............................. 519

References.................................................................................... 521

Chapter 11.—Human-Altered and Human Transported Soils................................................................. 525

Introduction .................................................................................. 525

Background .................................................................................. 526

Importance.................................................................................... 531

Occurrence.................................................................................... 532

Identification................................................................................. 532

Description ................................................................................... 536

Survey Methods and Procedures.................................................. 537

Pedon Descriptions....................................................................... 549

References.................................................................................... 552

Appendix 1.—Official Soil Series Description................ 555

Olton Series.................................................................................. 555

Appendix 2.—Detailed Map Unit Description.................. 561

OcA—Olton clay loam, 0 to 1 percent slopes.............................. 561

Appendix 3.—NCSS Soil Characterization Database................................................................................... 563

Appendix 4.—Web Soil Survey ............................................. 573

Soil Survey Maps and Map Products........................................... 573

Index................................................................................................. 587

Audience

The Manual is intended primarily for use by soil scientists and surveyors engaged in the work of making soil surveys. Workers and students who have limited soil science experience or are less familiar with the soil survey process can also use the information. Teachers, researchers, and students of soil science and related disciplines, especially those interested in pedology, soil morphology, soil geography, ecology, geomorphology, and the science underlying soil survey, will find this manual useful. Resource specialists, such as wetland scientists, foresters, and agronomists, and others who use soil surveys in their work, can refer to the Manual to better understand how soil surveys are made and how to interpret the technical information they provide.

Product Details

Availability Details:
In Stock
USA Price:
$61.00
International Price:
$85.40
Publisher:
Agriculture Dept., Soil Science Division
Year/Pages:
2017: 621 p.; ill.
Notes:
Supersedes 1962 and 1993 editions of the manual.
Key Phrases:
  • Agriculture Department Handbook 18
  • Soil Science
Weight:
1.4375
Quantity Price:
Discount
Cover:
Paper
Unit of Issue (US):
1
Unit of Issue (Non-US):
1
Item available Date:
03/10/2017
Last Status Update:
06/14/2017
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