Seismic Evaluation of Older Concrete Buildings for Collapse Potential

Seismic Evaluation of Older Concrete Buildings for Collapse Potential
Title:
Seismic Evaluation of Older Concrete Buildings for Collapse Potential
Format:
Paperback
USA Price: 
Stock:
In stock
GPO Stock Number:
064-000-00080-2
ISBN:
9780160950438
Description

Have Older Concrete Buildings for Collapse impacted you?

A wide variety of concrete buildings exist in different regions around the United States. Many of these building were constructed prior to the late-1970s, and include archaic construction dating back to the early 1900s. 

A lot of these problematic issues include:

  • Inadequate steel reinforcing details
  • System irregularities
  • Element discontinuities that can result in sudden failure and loss of vertical load-carrying ability.

Large earthquakes have demonstrated the seismic vulnerability of these older, concrete buildings, but not all such buildings are at risk of global collapse. In this technical publication, you will find numerous concrete structure formulas that meet current evaluation methods and retrofit techniques. This new evaluation methodology was needed to help construction workers, concrete building maintenance workers, and others screen older concrete buildings for potential collapse risk. 

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Table of Contents

Foreword iii

Preface v

List of Figures xv

List of Tables xxvii

1. Introduction  1-1

1.1 ATC-78 Project Series 1-1

1.2 Evaluation Methodology 1-3

1.3 Comparison with ASCE/SEI 41 1-5

1.4 Policy Implications 1-6

1.5 Report Organization and Contents 1-9

2. Evaluation Methodology  2-1

2.1 Scope and Applicability 2-1

2.1.1 Applicability 2-1

2.1.2 Seismic Deficiencies that are not Considered in the Methodology 2-3

2.1.3 Buildings with Concrete Components that are not Considered in the Methodology2-3

2.2 Overview of the Evaluation Methodology 2-4

2.2.1 Overview of Key Calculation Procedures 2-5

2.2.2 Early Identification of Lower Seismic Risk Buildings 2-7

2.2.3 Early Identification of Exceptionally High Seismic Risk Buildings  2-7

2.3 Use of Alternate Analysis Procedures 2-8

3. General Requirements 3-1

3.1 As-Built Information 3-1

3.2 Site Investigation 3-2

3.3 Seismic Hazard 3-2

3.4 Material Properties 3-3

3.4.1 General 3-3 3.

4.2 Concrete and Reinforcing Steel 3-3 3.

4.3 Masonry Infill 3-3

3.5 Condition of Structural Components 3-5

3.6 Structural Load Path Requirements 3-5

3.6.1 Diaphragm Continuity 3-5

3.6.2 Concrete Element Interconnectivity 3-6

3.7 Penthouse and Other Rooftop Structures 3-7

viii Table of Contents FEMA P -2018

4. Component Strengths 4-1

4.1 Introduction 4-1

4.2 Axial Loads on Columns and Walls  4-1

4.2.1 Expected Gravity Loads  4-1

4.2.2 Earthquake Axial Loads 4-1

4.2.3 Load Combinations  4-2

4.3. Component Strength Calculations 4-2

4.3.1 General  4-2

4.3.2 Concrete Column Strength  4-3

4.3.3 Beam-Column Joint Shear Strength  4-4

4.3.4 Slab-Column Frame Strength and Integrity Requirements  4-5

4.3.5 Concrete Wall Strength 4-6

4.3.6 Infilled Frame Strength 4-6

4.4 Column Shear Strength Ratio  4-9 4.

4.1 Column Shear Capacity in a Typical Story  4-9 4.

4.2 Slab-Column Frames  4-10

5. Structural Classification 5-1

5.1 Introduction 5-1

5.2 Classification of Concrete Components 5-2

5.2.1 Reinforced Concrete Columns 5-2

5.2.2 Reinforced Concrete Structural Walls 5-2

5.3 Classification of Building Systems  5-3

5.3.1 Frame Systems  5-3

5.3.2 Frame -Wall Systems  5-3

5.3.3 Bearing Wall Systems 5-4

5.3.4 Infilled Frame Systems 5-4

5.4 Wall Index and Wall Strength Index  5-5

5.4.1 Wall Index 5-5

5.4.2 Wall Strength Index  5-6

5.4.3 Identification of Lower Seismic Risk Buildings using the Wall Strength Index 5-6

5.5 Effective Yield Strength 5-7

5.5.1 Plastic Mechanism Base -Shear Strength for Frames and Walls  5-7

5.5.2 Plastic Mechanism Base-Shear Strength for Infilled Frame Systems 5-15

5.5.3 Plastic Mechanism Base-Shear Strength for Mezzanines and Other Configurations  5-17

5.5.4 Three-Dimensional Considerations 5-18 5.

5.5 Base Shear Ratio 5-19

5.6 Effective Fundamental Periods 5-19

5.6.1 Determination of Effective Period by Formula 5-20

5.6.2 Determination of Effective Period by Structural Analysis  5-21

5.7 Global Demand-to -Capacity Ratio  5-21

5.8 Identification of Lower Seismic Risk Buildings 5-22

5.8.1 Essentially Elastic Buildings 5-22

5.9 Identification of Exceptionally High Seismic Risk Buildings  5-22

5.9.1 Exceptionally Weak Buildings 5-22

FEMA P-2018 Table of Contents ix 5.9.2

Discontinuous Walls Supported on Columns, Wall Piers, or Girders  5-23

5.10 Pounding  5-25

5.10.1 Shorter Interfering Building 5-25

5.10.2 Taller Interfering Building 5-25

6. Evaluation Procedure for Frame Systems  6-1

6.1 Introduction  6-1

6.2 Identify Critical Stories  6-1

6.3 Identify Critical Components  6-2

6.3.1 Critical Columns 6-2

6.3.2 Critical Slab-Column Connections  6-2

6.3.3 Critical Beam-Column Corner Connections  6-3

6.3.4 Discontinuous Columns  6-3

6.4 Calculate Global Seismic Drift Demand 6-3

6.5 Calculate Story Drift Demand  6-4

6.5.1 Adjustment of Story Drift Demand for P-Delta  6-5

6.6 Calculate Drift Demands on Critical Components 6-6

6.6.1 Adjusted Drift Demand on Critical Components  6-6

6.6.2 Torsional Amplification Factor  6-6

6.6.3 Drift Factor  6-6

6.7 Calculate Drift Capacity of Critical Components 6-7

6.7.1 Drift Capacity of Critical Columns 6-7 6.

7.2 Drift Capacity of Critical Slab-Column Connections  6-9 6.

7.3 Drift Capacity of Critical Beam-Column Corner Connections  6-10

6.8 Determine Column Ratings

6-10 6.8.1 Discontinuous Columns 6-12

6.9 Determine Story Ratings 6-12

7. Evaluation Procedures for Frame-Wall Systems  7-1

7.1 Introduction 7-1

7.2 Identify Critical Stories  7-1

7.3 Identify Critical Components  7-2

7.3.1 Critical Columns  7-2

7.3.2 Critical Walls and Vertical Wall Segments 7-3

7.3.3 Critical Slab-Column Connections  7-3

7.3.4 Critical Beam-Column Corner Connections 7-4

7.3.5 Discontinuous Columns  7-4

7.4 Calculate Global Seismic Drift Demand 7-4

7.5 Calculate Story Drift Demand  7-5

7.6 Calculate Drift Demands on Critical Components  7-6

7.6.1 Adjusted Drift Demand on Critical Components 7-6

7.6.2 Torsional Amplification Factor 7-7

7.6.3 Drift Factor  7-8

7.7 Calculate Drift Capacity of Critical Components 7-9

7.7.1 Drift Capacity of Critical Columns  7-9

7.7.2 Drift Capacity of Critical Slab-Column Connections 7-11

7.7.3 Drift Capacity of Critical Beam-Column Corner Connections  7-12

x Table of Contents FEMA P -2018 7.7.4

Drift Capacity of Critical Walls and Vertical Wall Segments 7-12

7.8 Determine Column and Wall Ratings 7-15

7.8.1 Discontinuous Columns  7-17

7.9 Determine Story Ratings  7-17

8. Evaluation Procedures for Bearing Wall Systems  8-1

8.1 Introduction  8-1

8.2 Identify Critical Stories 8-1

8.3 Identify Critical Components  8-2

8.3.1 Critical Walls and Vertical Wall Segments  8-2

8.3.2 Other Critical Components 8-3

8.4 Calculate Global Seismic Drift Demand  8-3

8.5 Calculate Story Drift Demand  8-4

8.6 Calculate Drift Demands on Critical Components  8-5

8.6.1 Adjusted Drift Demand on Critical Components 8-5

8.6.2 Torsional Amplification Factor 8-5

8.6.3 Drift Factor  8-5

8.7 Calculate Drift Capacity of Critical Components  8-6

8.7.1 Drift Capacity of Critical Walls and Vertical Wall Segments  8-6

8.7.2 Drift Capacity of Other Critical Components  8-9

8.8 Determine Wall and Column Ratings 8-9

8.8.1 Determine Wall Ratings 8-9

8.8.2 Determine Column Ratings  8-9

8.9 Determine Story Ratings 8-9

9. Evaluation Procedures for Infilled Frame Systems 9-1

9.1 Introduction  9-1

9.2 Identify Critical Stories  9-2

9.3 Identify Critical Components  9-2

9.3.1 Critical Columns in Infilled Frame Systems  9-2

9.3.2 Other Critical Components  9-2

9.4 Calculate Global Seismic Drift Demand  9-3

9.5 Calculate Story Drift Demand   9-4

9.6 Calculate Drift Demands in Critical Components   9-4

9.6.1 Adjusted Drift Demand on Critical Components  9-4

9.6.2 Torsional Amplification Factor  9-5

9.6.3 Drift Factor 9-6

9.7 Calculate Drift Capacity of Critical Components  9-7

9.7.1 Drift Capacity of Critical Columns in Infilled Frame Systems 9-7

9.7.2 Drift Capacity of Other Critical Components  9-9

9.7.3 Drift Capacity of Critical Walls and Vertical Wall Segments 9-9

9.8 Determine Column and Wall Ratings 9-10

9.8.1 Determine Ratings for Columns in Infilled Frame Systems  9-10

9.8.2 Determine Ratings for Other Critical Components 9-11

9.9 Determine Story Ratings  9-11

FEMA P-2018

Table of Contents

xi 10. Determination of Building Rating  10-1

10.1 Introduction  10-1

10.2 Determine Building Rating 10-1

10.3 Recommended Building Risk Levels 10-1

10.3.1 Exceptionally High Seismic Risk Buildings 10-2

10.3.2 High Seismic Risk Buildings 10-2

10.3.3 Lower Seismic Risk Buildings  10-2

Appendix A: Development of Column Drift Capacities .A-1

A.1 Introduction  A-1

A.2 Column Plastic Rotation Capacity Determination  A-1

A.2.1 Plastic Rotation Capacities for Flexure-Critical Columns  A-2

A.2.2 Plastic Rotation Capacities for Flexure-Shear and Shear-Critical Columns  A-2

A.2.3 Bias in Plastic Rotation Capacity Predictions  A-2

A.2.4 Comparison of Plastic Rotation Capacity Prediction Methods   A-4

A.2.5 Uncertainty in Plastic Rotation Capacities  A-6

A.2.6 Elastic Component of Column Drift Capacity   A-7

A.2.7 Drift Capacity of Columns with Inadequate Lap Splices  A-7

A.3 Slab-Column Connection Drift Capacity Determination  A-7

Appendix B: Development of Method for Determining Column Ratings  B-1

B.1 Overview  B-1

B.2 Structural Reliability Methods for Computing the Column Rating B-1

Appendix C: Development of Method for Determining Story Ratings C-1

C.1 Overview C-1

C.2 Probability Theory for Determining Probability of Story Collapse C-1

C.3 Development of Story Ratings C-2

Appendix D: Wall Strength Index (WSI) Method  D-1

D.1 Overview  D-1

D.2 Numerical Simulation  D-2

D.2.1 Buildings Analyzed  D-2

D.2.2 Modeling  D-3

D.2.3 Ground Motion Selection and Scaling  D-4

D.2.4 Collapse  D-4

D.2.5 Results  D-5

D.3 Analytical Investigation of WSI  D-7

D.4 Limitations  D-9

D.5 Conclusions  D-10

Appendix E: Exceptionally Weak Building Criteria E-1

E.1 Overview  E-1

E.2 Modeling  E-2

E.3 Ground Motion Selection and Scaling  E-2 

Audience

This resource may be helpful to architects, building engineers, construction workers and maintenance workers at older concrete buildings and restoration workers.

Product Details

Availability Details:
In Stock
USA Price:
$60.00
International Price:
$84.00
Publisher:
Homeland Security Dept., Federal Emergency Management Agency
Key Phrases:
  • FEMA P 2018
  • National Earthquake Hazards Reduction Program, NEHRP
  • Earthquakes
  • Building Construction
Weight:
2.0625
Quantity Price:
Discount
Cover:
Paper
Unit of Issue (US):
1
Unit of Issue (Non-US):
1
Record Creation Date:
04/26/2019
Last Status Update:
06/17/2019
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