Mixed Gender Basic Training: The U.S. Army Experience, 1973-2004

Mixed Gender Basic Training: The U.S. Army Experience, 1973-2004
Title:
Mixed Gender Basic Training: The U.S. Army Experience, 1973-2004
Format:
Paperback
USA Price: 
$20.00
$10.00
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Stock:
In stock
GPO Stock Number:
008-029-00466-6
ISBN:
9780160794209
Description

CMH 69-8-1. This is a study of the U.S. Army’s experience in training enlisted men and women together for basic combat skills. This volume is an account of the many currents, some ongoing, that informed the Army's struggle to design a basic training course acceptable to the nation's civil and military leadership, the general public, various special interest groups, and the young men and women undergoing their first experience as soldiers. This study employs a mixture of topical and chronological organization. Although there is brief attention to the long-range historical perspective, the major focus is on the period from 1973 to 2004. The author’s aim is to tell the Army’s story of mixed-gender training at the initial-entry level.

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Table of Contents

Table of Contents:

Foreword . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . v

Preface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . vii

Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xi

Chapter I — Background . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1

A Historical Overview: The American Revolution to 1973 . . . . 1

Military, Social, and Political Currents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5

The All-Volunteer Army and the Numbers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6

The Women’s Liberation Movement, the ERA,

 and DACOWITS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7

Combat Exclusion and the Draft . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11

Other Gender-Related Issues . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17

 Physical Strength and Endurance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17

 Pregnancy, Marriage, and Parenthood . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19

 Attrition and Retention . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22

 Male Ego, Bonding, and Unit Cohesiveness . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24

 Emotions and Aggression . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25

 Fraternization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27

 Sexual Harassment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29

 Public Opinion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31

Chapter II — The First Experiment: Basic Combat Training,

 1975–1982 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33

The Experiment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33

Studies and Experiments: The 1970s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35

The Fort Jackson Test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42

Implementation of Integrated Training . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45

The Experience . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46

The Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51

The Election of 1980 and Other Changes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56

The Return of Separate Training . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57

The 1981–1982 Women in the Army Policy Review . . . . . . . . . 62

Conclusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68

Chapter III — An Uneasy Interlude: 1982–1996 . . . . . . . . . . . . 71

Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71

MEPSCAT and DCPC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72

The 1980s Controversies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75

The NORC Surveys . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75

Letters (DACOWITS and Weinberger) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76

Grenada, 1983 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78

DACOWITS and the Risk Rule . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79

More Studies—GAO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80

ARI and Recruitment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81

The Field Artillery Question . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82

Panama and Operations Desert Shield and Desert Storm . . . . 83

The Presidential Commission on the Assignment of Women

 in the Armed Forces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87

Fort Jackson, ARI, and Secretary Les Aspin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89

Fort Jackson and ARI Revisited, 1995 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96

The Reception Station and Beyond . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100

Chapter IV — A New Challenge but Old Issues, 1996–2000 . . 107

Aberdeen Proving Ground, November 1996 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107

The Army Investigates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109

Congress Investigates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116

Department of Defense Investigates,

 June–December 1997 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120

Blair Commission . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 132

Chapter V — Into the Twenty-First Century . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 141

A New Political Era, 2001 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 141

TRADOC Gender-Integrated Training Assessment . . . . . . . . . 147

DACOWITS and a New Era . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 149

The RSTA Debate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 155

U.S. Military Women in Iraq . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 156

A New BCT Program of Instruction: Warrior Ethos . . . . . . . . . 161

A New Physical Training Program . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 164

Women and the Draft . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 166

Conclusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 169

Selected Bibliography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 175

Abbreviations and Acronyms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 185

Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 187

Audience

Military and government policymakers, military members and leaders, military-focused committees, and women currently in the military should reference this important document about the challenges of mixed gender basic training in the U.S. Army to address previous problems and challenges, and continue to fine-tune military programs so that both female and male service members are comfortable and abide by rules that prevent discrimination and harassment and encourage cooperative behavior between both genders. In addition, historians and students engaged in military and women's studies, as well as military enthusiasts, may want a copy of this publication.

Product Details

Availability Details:
In Stock
USA Price:
$10.00
International Price:
$14.00
Publisher:
Defense Dept., Army, U.S. Army Training and Doctrine Command
Author:
  • Chapman, Anne W.
Key Phrases:
  • Center of Military History Publication 69 8 1
  • Military History
  • United States Army Experience
  • Womens History
  • Military Basic training
  • Women Soldiers
  • Coeducation
Weight:
0.9375
Quantity Price:
Discount
Cover:
Paper
Unit of Issue (US):
1
Unit of Issue (Non-US):
1
Item available Date:
10/04/2007
Last Status Update:
12/12/2018
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