Inquiry Into the Treatment of Detainees in U.S. Custody: Report, November 20, 2008

Inquiry Into the Treatment of Detainees in U.S. Custody: Report, November 20, 2008
Inquiry Into the Treatment of Detainees in U.S. Custody: Report, November 20, 2008
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S. Prt. 110-54. Reports on the Committee on Armed Services' inquiry into the treatment of Middle Eastern detainees in United States custody. Unclassified. Committee Print. 110th Congress, 2d Session.

Table of Contents

Table of Contents:




Note on Source Material Used in the Preparation of the Report (U) viii


List of Acronyms Used in the Report (U)                ix


Executive Summary and Conclusions (U)               xii


I.             Early Influences on Interrogation Policy (U) 1


A.            Redefining the Legal Framework For the Treatment of Detainees (U) 1


B.            Department of Defense Office of General Counsel Seeks Information from the Joint


Personnel Recovery Agency (JPRA) (U) 3


C.            JPRA Collaboration with Other Government Agencies (OGAs) (U) 6


D.            JPRA Support to the Defense Intelligence Agency (DIA) (U) 8


E.            JPRA Recommendations for GTMO (U) 11


F.            Colonel Herrington's Assessment of GTMO (U) 12


G.           JPRA Prepares Draft Exploitation Plan (U) 14


II.            Development of New Interrogation Authorities (U) 16


A.            CIA's Interrogation Program and the Interrogation of Abu Zubaydah (U) 16


B.            JPRA Assistance to Another Government Agency (U) 19


C.            Senior SERE Psychologist Detailed From Department of Defense to Other Government


Agency (U) 23


D.            Department of Defense General Counsel Seeks Information on SERE Techniques From


JPRA (U) 24


E.            The Department of Justice Changes the Rules (U) 31


F.            JPRA 's Special Program In Support of [redacted] (U) 35


1.            August 2002 Training Proposal (U) 35


2.            JPRA Creates Project 22B (U) 37


III.           Guantanamo Bay as a "Battle Lab" for New Interrogation Techniques (U) 38


A.            GTMO Stands Up a Behavioral Science Consultation Team (BSCT) (U) 38


B.            Behavioral Science Consultation Team (BSCT) Personnel Contact the U.S. Army Special


Operations Command (USASOC) (U) 39


c.             U.S. Southern Command Seeks External Review of GTMO (U) .42


D.            GTMO Personnel Attend Training at Fort Bragg (U) 43


E.            Delegation of Senior Government Lawyers Visits Guantanamo (U) 49


F.            JTF-/70 BSCT Produces Interrogation Policy Memo (U) 50


G.           CIA Lawyer Advises GTMO on Interrogations (U) 53


H.            DoD Takes Lead on the Interrogation of Mohammed al Khatani (U) 57


IV.          GTMO Seeks Authority to Use Aggressive Interrogation Techniques (U) 61


A.            GTMO Requests Counter-Resistance Techniques Influenced by SERE (U) 61


B.            GTMO Staff Judge Advocate Conducts "Legal Review of Aggressive Interrogation


Techniques" (U) 63


C.            Chain of Command Considers the Request for Interrogation Techniques as CITF and FBI


Raise Objections (U) 65


D.            Military Services React to GTMO Request for Interrogation Techniques (U) 67


E.            Department of Defense General Counsel Quashes Joint Staff Legal Review (U) 70


F.            GTMO and JPRA Plan for Additional Interrogation Training (U) 72


V.            Command Change at Guantanamo as Dispute over Aggressive Techniques Continues (U) 73


A.            Major General Geoffrey Miller Takes Command of JTF-GTMO (U) 73


B.            Khatani Interrogation Plan Fuels Dispute Over Aggressive Techniques (U) 74


I.             JTF-GTMO Staff Circulate Khatani Interrogation Plan (U) 75


2.            CITF and FBI Object to Proposed Interrogation Techniques (U) 78


3.            JTF-GTMO Briefs DoD General Counsel's Office on Interrogation Plan (U).........79


4.            "Final" Khatani Interrogation Plan (U) 8]


5.            FBI and ClTF Continue to Object to Khatani Interrogation Plan (U) 84


6.            Khatani Interrogation Begins, CITF Directed To "Stand Clear" (U) 87


7.            Techniques Used During Khatani Interrogation (U) , ,..88


VI.          JPRA's Assistance to Another Government Agency (U) 91


VII.         Secretary Rumsfeld Approves Interrogation Authorities, GTMO Plans to Implement SERE


Techniques (U) 94


A.            Secretary of Defense Authorizes Aggressive Techniques for use at GTMO (U) 94


B.            JTF-GTMO Develops Standard Operating Procedure (SOP) for the Use of SERE


Techniques in Interrogations (U) 97


C.            SERE School Trainers Provide Instruction for GTMO Interrogators (U) 103


D.            Navy General Counsel Raises Concerns About Interrogation Techniques, Secretary

Rumsfeld Rescinds Authority (U) 105

E.            National Security Council (NSC) Principals Discuss DoD Interrogations (U) 109


VIII.        New Interrogation Policy Developed for GTMO (U) 110


A.            The Working Group Solicits Information on Interrogation Techniques lI0

1.            The Defense Intelligence Agency Provides Information on Specific Interrogation


Techniques (U) 110


2.            The Working Group Solicits Information About Interrogation Techniques From




3.            The Working Group Requests Information from JPRA (U) 116


B.            Department of Justice Office of Legal Counsel's Analysis Is Presented As Controlling


Authority (U) 118


C.            Working Group Drafts Report Recommending Interrogation Techniques (U) 122


D.            SOUTHCOM Presses for Additional Techniques (U) 128


E.            JPRA Briefs Members of the Working Group on SERE Techniques, Including Physical


Pressures (U) 130


F.            The Working Group Finalizes Its Report and the Secretary of Defense Issues a New


Interrogation Policy For GTMO (U) 130


IX.           Aggressive Interrogations at GTMO (U) 132


A.            Allegations of Detainee Mistreatment (U) 132


B.            Special Interrogation Plans Modeled on Khatani Interrogation (U) 135


1.            JTF-GTMO Plans for Interrogation of Slahi (U) 135


2.            JTF-GTMO Formally Submits Special Interrogation Plan for Slahi (ISN 760)

(U) 136


3.            Interrogation Begins Before the Special Interrogation Plan Is Approved (U) 138

4.            Special Interrogation Plan Approved and Implemented Despite Apparent


Cooperation (U) 140


5.            FBI Concerns with Special Interrogation (U) 141


6.            Special Project at GTMO Uses Aggressive Interrogation Techniques (U) 141


7.            CITF Reissues Order for Agents to "Stand Clear" of Aggressive Interrogations

(U) 143


8.            GTMO Seeks Approval for Two Additional Special Interrogation Plans (U) 143


a.            Special Interrogation Plan #3 (U) 143


b.            Special Interrogation Plan #4 (U) 144


c.             SOUTHCOM and OSD SO/LIC Recommend Approval of Special


Interrogation Plans #3 & #4 (U) 145


X.            DOJ Office of Legal Counsel Withdraws March 14, 2003 Legal Opinion Governing DoD


Interrogations (U) 146


XI.           Development of lnterrogation Policy in Afghanistan (U) 148


A.            Assessment Team Visit to Guantanamo Bay (U) 149


B.            The Deaths of Dilawar and Habibullah (U) 151


c.             Questions Raised About Task Force Participation in OGA Interrogations (U) 152


D.            January 2003 Task Force Interrogation SOP (Afghanistan) (U) 153


E.            CJTF-/80 Produces Memorandum on Interrogation Techniques (U) 154


F.            CENTCOM Raises Concerns About Interrogation Techniques (U) 156


XII.         Development of Interrogation Policy in Iraq (U) 157


A.            Special Mission Unit Task Force Interrogation Policies (U) 158


1.            SMU Task Force Uses Afghanistan Interrogation Policy (U) 158


2.            OGA Comments on SMU TF Interrogation Techniques (U) 159


3.            July 2003 Interrogation SOP Drafted for Iraq SMU TF (U) J59


4.            Iraq Survey Group Concerns with SMU TF Detainee Treatment (U) J62


B. Interrogation Policies for Conventional Forces in Iraq (U) J64


J.             CJTF-7 Stands Up (Summer 2003) (U) J64


2.            Interrogation Operations Begin at Abu Ghraib (U) J65


3.            51 y h MI Battalion at Abu Ghraib Seeks Additional Guidance (U) J66


4.            51yh MI BN Proposes Interrogation Policy (U) J66


5.            CJTF-7 Solicits "Wish List" of Interrogation Techniques (U) J67


6.            Interrogation OIC at Abu Ghraib Resubmits the Proposed Interrogation Policy for

51yh MI BN(U) J69


C.            JPRA Provides "Offensive" SERE Training in Iraq (U) J70


1.            Special Mission Unit Task Force in Iraq Seeks Assistance from JPRA (U) J70


2.            Awareness of the JPRA Trip to Iraq at Headquarters, Joint Forces Command



3.            JPRA Provides Interrogation Support to the Special Mission Unit Task Force in Iraq

(U)         J73


4.            JPRA Team Authorized to Participate in Interrogations (U) J74


5.            JPRA Present as Interrogator Uses Stress Positions and Slaps (U) J76


6.            JPRA Team Authorized to Use SERE Techniques (U) J79


7.            JPRA Team Chief Seeks Legal Guidance (U) J79


8.            JPRA Training Manager and Contractor Participate in an Interrogation (U) J8J


9. JPRA Team Chief Objects to SMU TF Interrogation (U) J82


JO. JPRA Develops a Concept of Operations (CONOP) (U) J84


JJ. JPRA Team Leaves Iraq (U) J86


J2. U.S. Joint Forces Command (JFCOM) Reviews JPRA Concept Of Operations

(CONOP) (U) J87


J3. JFCOM Verifies Team Chief's Account of Events in Iraq (U) J88


D. Major General Geoffrey Miller Leads GTMO Assessment Team to Iraq (U) 189


1. CJTF-7 Commander Identifies Deficiencies (U) 189


2. GTMO Assessment Team Travels to Iraq (U) 190


3. GTMO Team Visits Iraq Survey Group (ISG) (U) 191


4. GTMO Team Visits Special Mission Unit Task Force (U) 193


5. GTMO Team Discusses Interrogations with CJTF-7 (U) 194


6. GTMO Commander Recommends CJTF-7 Develop an Interrogation Policy (U) 197


7. JTF-GTMO Assessment Team Produces Trip Report (U) 198


8. MG Miller Briefs Senior DoD Officials on Assessment Visit (U) 199


E. Interrogation and Counter-Resistance Policy Established (U) 200


1. CJTF-7 Commander Issues Policy Including Aggressive Interrogation Techniques

(U) 200


2. Interrogation and Counter Resistance Policy Implemented at Abu Ghraib (U) 201


3. CENTCOM Raises Concerns About CJTF-7 Policy (U) 202


4. CJTF-7 Issues New Interrogation Policy (U) 204


F. SMU Task Force Issues a New Interrogation SOP (U) 206


XIII. Interrogation Techniques and Detainee Mistreatment at Abu Ghraib (U) 207


A. Use of Military Working Dogs (U) 208


B. Stress Positions and Physical Training (U) 210


C. Removal of Clothing (U) 211


D. Sleep Adjustment / Sleep Management (U) 213


E. Sensory Deprivation and Isolation (U) 215


F. "Lost Opportunity" to Fix Problems at Abu Ghraib (U) 216


1. Retired Army Intelligence Officer Leads Assessment Team (U) 216


2. Assessment Team Visits Abu Ghraib and CJTF-7 Headquarters (U) 217


3. Team Hears Reports of Detainee Mistreatment (U) 218


4. COL Herrington Reports Findings (U) 218


XIV. Interrogation Policies Following Abu Ghraib (U) 219


A. February 2004 CJSOTF Interrogation SOP (U) 219


B. Interrogation Plan in Iraq Derived from SERE (U) 221


C. March 2004 Interrogation SOP for Conventional Forces in Afghanistan (U) 221


D. Special Mission Unit Task Force Interrogation Polices (U) 222


XV. CENTCOM Seeks JPRA Interrogation Assistance in Afghanistan (U) 224


A. May 2004 CENTCOM Request (U) 224


B. CENTCOM Makes Another Request for JPRA Interrogation Assistance in Afghanistan

(U) 228


C. U.S. Joint Forces Command Issues Policy Guidance For JPRA "Offensive" Support (U) 230


Defense departments and contractors, military leaders and staff, policymakers and members of government, and international human rights groups and groups responsible for maintaining human rights at U.S. military detainee facilities should all have knowledge of this publication since it addresses serious issues concerning the U.S. government's use of certain policies regarding detainees considered a national threat.  In addition, historians, students interested in military and political history and/or human rights studies, and members of the general public interested in a detailed report from a certain period of time about U.S. treatment of detainees would find this publication useful.

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Senate, Committee on Armed Services
Key Phrases:
  • Senate Print 110 54
  • Detainees
  • United States Custody
  • Iraq War, 2003 -
  • Afghanistan
  • Interrogation
  • Human Rights
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