Directors of the Central Intelligence as Leaders of the United States Intelligence Community, 1946-2005

Directors of the Central Intelligence as Leaders of the United States Intelligence Community, 1946-2005
Title:
Directors of the Central Intelligence as Leaders of the United States Intelligence Community, 1946-2005
Format:
Paperback
USA Price: 
Stock:
Low stock
GPO Stock Number:
041-015-00247-3
ISBN:
1-929667-14-0
Description

Author and former senior CIA official Dr. Douglas F. Garthoff explains how each Director of Central Intelligence or DCI sought to fulfill his "community" role, that of enhancing the cooperation among the many parts of the nation's intelligence community under his leadership. Explores that the nation's leaders expected of directors and how those holding the responsibility attempted to carry it out.

The story first takes up the roots of the DCI’s community role and then proceeds chronologically, describing the various approaches that successive DCIs have taken toward fulfilling their responsibilities in this regard from the launch of the CIA. At the end, it sums up the circumstances as of 2005 under the George W. Bush administration, when a new official—the Director of National Intelligence or DNI—replaced the DCI role, and some observations about these changes and looking to the future.

 

Table of Contents

Table of Contents:

LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS
FOREWORD
ABBREVIATIONS AND ACRONYMS
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
NOTE ON SOURCES
INTRODUCTION

FIRST FOUR DCIS: GAINING A FOOTHOLD
Intelligence Support for US World Role ................................... 9
Presidential Interest ............................................................... 11
Centralizing Intelligence ........................................................ 12
Director of Central Intelligence ........................................... 13
Coordination........................................................................... 14
Expectations Regarding Community Role ............................... 15
Individual or Collective Authority?.......................................... 16
Correlate and Evaluate ........................................................... 18
Services of Common Concern and Other Functions and Duties .. 21
CIA: A Complicating Factor ........................................................ 22
Signals Intelligence ............................................................ 25
Foothold Established ......................................................... 27

ALLEN DULLES: RELUCTANT MANAGER ................................ 31
Dulles as DCI ................................................................ 31
Pressure for Greater Coordination Grows ........................... 33
New Board and New Directive............................................. 34
The USIB System ................................................................... 36
One Last Try ............................................................ 37

JOHN MCCONE AND WILLIAM RABORN: NEW KIND OF DCI ... 41
Embraces Community Leadership Role .............................. 41
Focus on Resources ...................................................... 43
National Intelligence Programs Evaluation Staff .................. 43
Science and Technology .......................................................... 46
Raborn Interlude ....................................................................... 48

RICHARD HELMS: CORRALLING THE BEAST..................................... 53
Inheritor and Continuator ...............................................................53
USIB-Centered Process ...................................................................... 54
Requirements................................................................................... 56
Working with DOD on Resources.......................................................... 57
National Intelligence Resources Board .................................................. 58
Eaton Report ....................................................................................... 59
Froehlke and Fitzhugh Reports.......................................................................... 60
Strategic Planning ........................................................................................ 62
White House Attention .................................................................................. 63
Schlesinger Study ....................................................................................... 65
Reactions to Study ........................................................................................67
Nixon’s Memorandum ................................................................................. 69
DCI Response .............................................................................................71
Slow Progress ............................................................................................... 73
End Game ...................................................................................................... 75

JAMES SCHLESINGER: NEW DIRECTION ....................................................... 79
Optimistic Start .............................................................................................79
Community Comes First ................................................................................. 80
Strengthening the DCI’s Community Staff ...................................................... 80
Shaking Up CIA ................................................................................................ 82
Watergate ........................................................................................................ 84

WILLIAM COLBY: POSITIVE EFFORTS AMID TURMOIL ..................... 87
A Professional Ready for Reform ..................................................................... 87
Hit the Ground Running ................................................................................ 88
Key Intelligence Questions .............................................................................. 89
National Intelligence Officers .......................................................................92
Community Role Staffing ................................................................................ 94
Consolidated Budget .................................................................................... 95
Omnibus National Security Council Intelligence Directive ............................. 97
Other Initiatives ............................................................................................ 98
Call for Reform ............................................................................................100
Taylor Report ..............................................................................................101
Shape of Future Change .............................................................................105
In Sum ..........................................................................................................107

GEORGE H. W. BUSH: CALM BETWEEN STORMS .................................. 111
Why Bush? ...................................................................................................111
Getting Ready .................................................................................................112
Taking Over ....................................................................................................113
New Executive Order .....................................................................................115
Implementing the New Executive Order .........................................................117
Emphasis on Community Role .......................................................................119
Intelligence Community Staff ........................................................................ 120
Committee on Foreign Intelligence ............................................................... 122
Other Leadership Challenges ....................................................................... 125
Sense of Accomplishment ....................................................................... 126
“For Lack of a Better Term” ....................................................................... 127

STANSFIELD TURNER : AMBITION DENIED .......................................... 131
Enter the Admiral ...................................................................................... 132
Turner’s Relationship with CIA .................................................................. 132
Admiral as Analyst .................................................................................... 134
Options for Change ..................................................................................... 134
The “Three Vice Presidents” Solution ......................................................... 137
Implementing the New Plan ...................................................................... 138
Establishing a Collection Czar ....................................................................... 141
Analysis ........................................................................................................ 142
Resource Management .............................................................................. 143
Relationship with Defense ............................................................................ 144
Setting Community Priorities ......................................................................... 145
Frustration on Leaving................................................................................. 147
...but Future Vindication? ........................................................................... 147

WILLIAM CASEY: BACK TO BASICS .......................................................... 151
Reagan’s Choice ....................................................................................... 151
Transition ................................................................................................... 152
Status and Policy Role ................................................................................. 153
Casey Downplays Community Role ............................................................ 154
Executive Order 12333 ............................................................................ 155
Casey’s Community Leadership Style ......................................................... 159
Restoring the Intelligence Community Staff ................................................ 160
External Relationships ............................................................................... 162
Getting Along with the Pentagon ............................................................... 164
Shared Responsibility for Intelligence Budget ............................................. 166
Picking a Director of NSA ............................................................................ 167
The End ....................................................................................................... 169

WILLIAM WEBSTER: TRANSITION TO POST-COLD WAR ERA .............. 171
Getting Started ........................................................................................... 171
Coping with Change ..................................................................................... 172
NRO Reorganization .................................................................................... 173
Bridge Building ........................................................................................... 174
New Administration ................................................................................. 176
Lackman’s Plea .......................................................................................... 177
National Foreign Intelligence Strategy ..................................................... 178
Shepherding the Intelligence Budget ....................................................... 179
Statutory Inspector General ................................................................... 180
Community Staff Support ....................................................................... 180
Inspector General Report on IC Staff ....................................................... 181
Childs Study Group ..................................................................................183
Congress Pushes Reform ..........................................................................185
Defense Intelligence Reform ....................................................................187
Support to Military Operations ................................................................187
Establishment of DCI “Centers” ..............................................................188
Embassy Security ......................................................................................189
Graceful Exit .............................................................................................190

ROBERT GATES: PREEMPTIVE REFORM ................................................ 195
Ensuring White House Support .................................................................196
Change .......................................................................................................197
Task Force Whirlwind .................................................................................198
Foreign Intelligence Relationships ..........................................................199
Congressional Initiatives and White House Concerns .............................. 200
National Security Directive 67..................................................................... 202
Community Management Staff ...................................................................203
Gates and the INTs .....................................................................................207
Imagery.......................................................................................................209
NRO Goes Public .......................................................................................211
The Other INTs ...........................................................................................211
Requirements ........................................................................................... 212
Gates and Cheney ................................................................................ 213
Community Management Review ........................................................ 214
End Game ............................................................................................ 215
In Retrospect ...................................................................................... 216

R. JAMES WOOLSEY: UNCOMPROMISING DEFENDER ...................... 221
Community Management .................................................................... 221
Defense Department ............................................................................ 223
Director of Military Intelligence?.......................................................... 226
“Needs” Process ................................................................................... 227
Law Enforcement and Counterintelligence ...........................................229
Unhappy Exit ......................................................................................... 231

JOHN DEUTCH: BEYOND THE COMMUNITY ................................... 235
Continuing to Cope with Change ....................................................... 236
New Team ........................................................................................... 237
Program of Change .............................................................................. 238
PDD-35................................................................................................. 240
Hard Targets.......................................................................................... 240
...and Not-So-Hard Targets ................................................................... 241
Issue Coordinators and Center Chiefs ............................................... 242
National Imagery and Mapping Agency.............................................. 244
Commissions and Studies .................................................................... 246
Working with Defense on Programs and Budgets ............................. 249
State Department ................................................................................ 250
DCI Role within Executive Branch ......................................................... 251
Deutch Departs .................................................................................. 253

GEORGE TENET: DEPUTIZING INTEGRATION .....................................257
Fresh Start ..........................................................................................257
New DDCI/CM and ADCIs ................................................................... 258
Community Business ........................................................................... 261
Strategic Planning ................................................................................. 263
Setting Community Priorities ............................................................... 264
Mission Requirements Board ............................................................. 266
CMS and the ADCIs Chime In ........................................................... 268
Department of Defense ....................................................................... 269
Crime, Security, and Counterintelligence ............................................. 271
Department of State ...................................................................... 272
Commissions Urge Reforms ................................................................. 272
Post 9/11 Pressure for Change .............................................................. 275
Long Tenure Ends ................................................................................ 276

PORTER GOSS: THE LAST DCI ........................................................ 281
New DCI ............................................................................................... 282
Reforms Enacted .................................................................................. 283
Will They Work? ................................................................................... 285
End of an Era .....................................................................................286

FINAL OBSERVATIONS: OLD WINE, NEW BOTTLE ............................. 291
Initial Conception of DCI’s Community Role ....................................... 292
Community Role Expands .................................................................. 292
New Kind of DCI ............................................................................ 294
Political Dimension .......................................................................... 295
Fat Years and Lean ............................................................................ 296
Change as a Constant ....................................................................... 297
Look to the Future ........................................................................ 298

Audience

This publication would be useful to the military's analysis community, military commanders and staff officers at all levels, policymakers, members of government and defense agencies/contractors, and members of military-focused committees.  This publication would also be useful to historians and students engaged with historical/political/military studies.

 

Product Details

Availability Details:
In Stock
USA Price:
$45.75
International Price:
$64.05
Publisher:
Executive Office of the President, Central Intelligence Agency, Center for the Study of Intelligence
Author:
  • Garthoff, Douglas F.
Year/Pages:
2005: 360 p.; ill.
Notes:
NB1310
Key Phrases:
  • Intelligence Activities
  • Intelligence Analysis
  • Intelligence Services
  • Counterintelligence
  • Covert Operations
  • Espionage
Weight:
2.0625
Quantity Price:
Discount
Cover:
Paper
Subject Bibliography:
153
Unit of Issue (US):
1
Unit of Issue (Non-US):
1
Item available Date:
07/18/2005
Last Status Update:
11/28/2017
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