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Aviation Instructor's Handbook, 2008

Title:
Aviation Instructor's Handbook, 2008
Format:
Paperback
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$35.00
$17.50
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GPO Stock Number:
050-011-00081-0
ISBN:
9780160822124
Description

FAA-H-8083-9A. 2008 edition. The Aviation Instructor's Handbook, 2008 provides aviation flight instructors with up-to-date information on learning and teaching flying, and how to relate this information to the task of teaching aeronautical knowledge and skills to students. Experienced aviation teachers will find the updated information useful for improving their effectiveness in training activities. The handbook covers human behavior, the learning process, effective communication, the teaching process, assessment, planning instructional activity, instructor responsibilities and professionalism, techniques of flight instruction, and risk management.

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Table of Contents

Preface ...................................................................iii
Table of Contents .................................................vii

Chapter 1: Human Behavior ...........................................1-1
Introduction ....................................................................1-2
Definitions of Human Behavior .....................................1-2
Personality Types ...........................................................1-2
Instructor and Student Relationship ...............................1-3
Human Needs and Motivation .......................................1-3
Human Needs That Must Be Met To Encourage
Learning .....................................................................1-4
Physiological ...........................................................1-4
Security ...................................................................1-4
Belonging ................................................................1-4
Esteem .....................................................................1-4
Cognitive and Aesthetic ..........................................1-4
Self-Actualization ...................................................1-4
Human Nature and Motivation ......................................1-5
Human Factors That Inhibit Learning ............................1-6
Defense Mechanisms ..................................................1-6
Repression ...............................................................1-6
Denial .....................................................................1-7
Compensation .........................................................1-7
Projection ................................................................1-7
Rationalization ........................................................1-7
Reaction Formation ................................................1-7
Fantasy ....................................................................1-7
Displacement ..........................................................1-7
Student Emotional Reactions ........................................1-8
Anxiety .......................................................................1-8
Normal Reactions to Stress ........................................1-9
Abnormal Reactions to Stress ....................................1-9
Flight Instructor Actions Regarding Seriously
Abnormal Students .....................................................1-9
Teaching the Adult Student .........................................1-10
Chapter Summary ........................................................1-10

Chapter 2: The Learning Process .........................................2-1
Introduction ....................................................................2-1
The First Flight ..........................................................2-1
The Check Ride ..........................................................2-1
Discussion of First Flight and Check Ride .................2-2
What Is Learning? .....................................................2-2
The Framework for Learning .....................................2-2
Learning Theory ............................................................2-2
Behaviorism ...............................................................2-3
Cognitive Theory ........................................................2-3
Information Processing Theory ..............................2-4
Constructivism .......................................................2-4
Perceptions .....................................................................2-6
Factors That Affect Perception ..................................2-7
Physical Organism ..................................................2-7
Goals and Values ...................................................2-7
Self-Concept ...........................................................2-7
Time and Opportunity .............................................2-7
Element of Threat ..................................................2-7
Insight ............................................................................2-8
Acquiring Knowledge ...................................................2-8
Memorization ............................................................2-8
Understanding ...........................................................2-9
Concept Learning ......................................................2-9
Thorndike and the Laws of Learning ...........................2-10
Readiness ..................................................................2-10
Effect ........................................................................2-11
Exercise ....................................................................2-11
Primacy .....................................................................2-11
Intensity ....................................................................2-11
Recency ....................................................................2-11
Domains of Learning ...................................................2-12
Cognitive Domain ........................................................2-12
Affective Domain .....................................................2-14
Psychomotor Domain ...............................................2-15
Summary of Instructor Actions ...............................2-15
Characteristics of Learning ..........................................2-15
Learning Is Purposeful .............................................2-16
Learning Is a Result of Experience ..........................2-16
Learning Is Multifaceted ..........................................2-17
Learning Is an Active Process ..................................2-17
Learning Styles ............................................................2-17
Right Brain/Left Brain .............................................2-18
Holistic/Serialist Theory .........................................2-18
Index of Learning Styles (ILS) .................................2-18
Visual, Auditory, Kinesthetic Learners (VAK) .......2-19
Superlinks .................................................................2-19
Summary ..................................................................2-19
Acquiring Skill Knowledge .........................................2-20
Stages of Skill Acquisition .......................................2-20
Cognitive Stage .....................................................2-20
Associative Stage ..................................................2-20
Automatic Response Stage ..................................2-20
Knowledge of Results ..............................................2-21
How To Develop Skills ...........................................2-21
Types of Practice ..........................................................2-22
Deliberate Practice .................................................2-22
Blocked Practice .......................................................2-22
Random Practice ......................................................2-22
Evaluation Versus Critique ..........................................2-23
Overlearning of Knowledge ....................................2-23
Application of Skill ..................................................2-24
Summary of Instructor Actions ................................2-24
Putting It All Together ................................................2-24
Multitasking ............................................................2-24
Attention Switching .............................................2-24
Simultaneous Performance ..................................2-25
Learning To Multitask .............................................2-25
Distractions and Interruptions ..................................2-25
Fixation and Inattention ..........................................2-26
How To Identify Fixation or Inattention Problems ..2-26
Scenario-Based Training .............................................2-26
The Learning Route to Expertise .............................2-27
Cognitive Strategies .............................................2-27
Problem-Solving Tactics .....................................2-27
Awareness of Existence of Unknowns .....................2-27
Summary of Instructor Actions ...............................2-27
Errors ...........................................................................2-28
Kinds of Error ..........................................................2-28
Slip ........................................................................2-28
Mistake .................................................................2-28
Reducing Error ........................................................2-28
Learning and Practicing .......................................2-28
Taking Time .........................................................2-28
Checking for Errors .............................................2-29
Using Reminders ..................................................2-29
Developing Routines ...........................................2-29
Raising Awareness ...............................................2-29
Error Recovery ........................................................2-29
Learning From Error ...............................................2-29
Summary of Instructor Actions ................................2-29
Motivation ...................................................................2-29
Where Does the Motivation To Learn Come From? .....2-31
Student Questionnaire ..............................................2-31
Maintaining Motivation ..............................................2-31
Rewarding Success ..................................................2-31
Presenting New Challenges .....................................2-31
Drops in Motivation ................................................2-32
Summary of Instructor Actions ...............................2-32
Memory ........................................................................2-32
Sensory Memory .....................................................2-3
Short-Term Memory (STM) .....................................2-32
Long-Term Memory (LTM) .....................................2-33
Remembering What Has Been Learned ...................2-34
How Usage Affects Memory ...................................2-34
Forgetting .................................................................2-34
Retrieval Failure ...................................................2-34
Fading ...................................................................2-34
Interference ...........................................................2-35
Repression or Suppression ....................................2-35
Retention of Learning ..................................................2-35
Praise Stimulates Remembering ...............................2-35
Recall Is Promoted by Association ..........................2-35
Favorable Attitudes Aid Retention ...........................2-35
Learning With All Senses Is Most Effective ...........2-35
Meaningful Repetition Aids Recall ..........................2-35
Mnemonics ...............................................................2-35
Transfer of Learning ....................................................2-36
Habit Formation .......................................................2-37
How Understanding Affects Memory .....................2-37
Remembering During Training ...............................2-37
Remembering After Training ..................................2-37
Sources of Knowledge ............................................2-38
Summary of Instructor Actions ...............................2-38
Chapter Summary ........................................................2-38

Chapter 3: Effective Communication ...................................3-1
Introduction ....................................................................3-1
Basic Elements of Communication ................................3-2
Source .........................................................................3-2
Symbols .....................................................................3-2
Receiver ......................................................................3-4
Barriers to Effective Communication ............................3-4
Lack of Common Experience .....................................3-4
Confusion Between the Symbol and the Symbolized
Object .........................................................................3-5
Overuse of Abstractions .............................................3-5
Interference ................................................................3-6
Developing Communication Skills ................................3-7
Role Playing ..............................................................3-7
Instructional Communication .....................................3-7
Listening ....................................................................3-8
Questioning ...............................................................3-9
Instructional Enhancement .......................................3-10
Chapter Summary ........................................................3-10

Chapter 4: The Teaching Process ........................................4-1
Introduction ....................................................................4-1
What Is Teaching? ........................................................4-2
Essential Teaching Skills ..........................................4-2
People Skills ...........................................................4-2
Subject Matter Expertise .........................................4-2
Management Skills ................................................4-3
Assessment Skills ..................................................4-3
Instructor’s Code of Conduct .........................................4-3
Course of Training .........................................................4-4
Preparation of a Lesson ..................................................4-4
Training Objectives and Standards ...........................4-4
Performance-Based Objectives .................................4-5
Description of the Skill or Behavior .......................4-6
Conditions ...............................................................4-6
Criteria ....................................................................4-6
The Importance of the PTS in Aviation Training
Curricula ....................................................................4-6
Decision-Based Objectives .......................................4-7
Other Uses of Training Objectives .............................4-7
Presentation of a Lesson ................................................4-8
Organization of Material ................................................4-8
Introduction ................................................................4-8
Attention .................................................................4-8
Motivation ...............................................................4-9
Overview .................................................................4-9
Development ..............................................................4-9
Past to Present .........................................................4-9
Simple to Complex .................................................4-9
Known to Unknown ................................................4-9
Most Frequently Used to Least Used ......................4-9
Conclusion ................................................................4-10
Training Delivery Methods ..........................................4-10
Lecture Method ........................................................4-10
Teaching Lecture ..................................................4-10
Preparing the Teaching Lecture ............................4-10
Suitable Language ................................................4-11
Types of Delivery .................................................4-11
Use of Notes .........................................................4-12
Formal Versus Informal Lectures .........................4-12
Advantages and Disadvantages of the Lecture .....4-12
Discussion Method ...................................................4-13
Guided Discussion Method ......................................4-13
Use of Questions in a Guided Discussion .............4-13
Planning a Guided Discussion ..............................4-14
Student Preparation for a Guided Discussion .......4-14
Guiding a Discussion—Instructor Technique ......4-14
Advantages ...........................................................4-15
Problem-Based Learning ............................................4-15
Teaching Higher Order Thinking Skills (HOTS) .....4-16
Types of Problem-Based Instruction ........................4-16
Scenario-Based Training Method (SBT) ..............4-16
Collaborative Problem-Solving Method ...............4-17
Case Study Method ...............................................4-17
Electronic Learning (E-Learning) ................................4-18
Computer-Assisted Learning (CAL) Method ..........4-19
Simulation, Role-Playing, and Video Gaming .........4-20
Cooperative or Group Learning Method ......................4-20
Conditions and Controls ...........................................4-20
Demonstration-Performance Method ...........................4-21
Explanation Phase ....................................................4-21
Demonstration Phase ................................................4-21
Student Performance and Instructor Supervision
Phases .......................................................................4-21
Evaluation Phase ......................................................4-21
Drill and Practice Method ............................................4-21
Conclusion ................................................................4-22
Application of the Lesson ............................................4-22
Assessment of the Lesson ............................................4-22
Instructional Aids and Training Technologies .............4-22
Instructional Aid Theory ..........................................4-22
Reasons for Use of Instructional Aids ......................4-23
Guidelines for Use of Instructional Aids ..................4-24
Types of Instructional Aids ......................................4-25
Chalk or Marker Board .........................................4-25
Supplemental Print Material .................................4-25
Enhanced Training Materials ................................4-26
Projected Material .................................................4-26
Video .....................................................................4-27
Interactive CDs and DVDs ...................................4-27
Computer-Assisted Learning (CAL) ...................4-28
Models, Mock-ups, and Cut-Aways .....................4-28
Test Preparation Material .............................................4-29
Future Developments ...................................................4-29
Chapter Summary ........................................................4-29x

Chapter 5: Assessment .........................................................5-1
Introduction ....................................................................5-1
Assessment Terminology ...............................................5-2
Purpose of Assessment ..................................................5-2
General Characteristics of Effective Assessment ..........5-3
Objective ....................................................................5-3
Flexible .......................................................................5-3
Acceptable ..................................................................5-3
Comprehensive ...........................................................5-3
Constructive ...............................................................5-3
Organized ...................................................................5-4
Thoughtful ..................................................................5-4
Specific .......................................................................5-4
Traditional Assessment ..................................................5-4
Characteristics of a Good Written Assessment
(Test) ..........................................................................5-4
Authentic Assessment ....................................................5-5
Collaborative Assessment ..........................................5-5
Maneuver or Procedure “Grades” .............................5-6
Single-Pilot Resource Management (SRM)
“Grades” ....................................................................5-6
Choosing an Effective Assessment Method ..................5-8
Determine Level-of-Learning Objectives ..................5-8
List Indicators/Samples of Desired Behaviors ...........5-8
Establish Criterion Objectives ....................................5-8
Develop Criterion-Referenced Assessment Items ......5-9
Critiques and Oral Assessments .....................................5-9
Instructor/Student Critique .......................................5-10
Student-Led Critique ................................................5-10
Small Group Critique ...............................................5-10
Individual Student Critique by Another Student ......5-10
Self-Critique .............................................................5-10
Written Critique ........................................................5-10
Oral Assessment .......................................................5-10
Characteristics of Effective Questions .....................5-10
Types of Questions To Avoid ..................................5-11
Answering Student Questions ..................................5-11
Chapter Summary ........................................................5-11

Chapter 6: Planning Instructional Activity ..........................6-1
Introduction ...................................................................6-1
Course of Training .........................................................6-2
Blocks of Learning .........................................................6-2
Training Syllabus ...........................................................6-3
Syllabus Format and Content .....................................6-3
How To Use a Training Syllabus ...............................6-4
Lesson Plans...................................................................6-6
Purpose of the Lesson Plan ........................................6-6
Characteristics of a Well-Planned Lesson ..................6-6
How To Use a Lesson Plan Properly .........................6-8
Lesson Plan Formats ..................................................6-8
Scenario-Based Training (SBT) .....................................6-9
Duties, Responsibilities, and Authority of the
Aviation Instructor .....................................................6-9
SBT Lesson Plan ......................................................6-10
Prescenario Planning ................................................6-11
Single-Pilot Resource Management .............................6-12
Chapter Summary ........................................................6-12

Chapter 7: Instructor Responsibilities and Professionalism .................7-1
Introduction ....................................................................7-1
Aviation Instructor Responsibilities ..............................7-2
Helping Students Learn ..............................................7-2
Providing Adequate Instruction .................................7-2
Standards of Performance ..........................................7-3
Emphasizing the Positive ...........................................7-3
Minimizing Student Frustrations ................................7-4
Flight Instructor Responsibilities ..................................7-5
Physiological Obstacles for Flight Students ...............7-5
Ensuring Student Skill Set ..........................................7-5
Aviator’s Model Code of Conduct .................................7-6
Safety Practices and Accident Prevention .....................7-6
Professionalism ..............................................................7-6
Sincerity .....................................................................7-7
Acceptance of the Student ..........................................7-7
Personal Appearance and Habits ................................7-7
Demeanor ...................................................................7-8
Proper Language ........................................................7-8
Evaluation of Student Ability ........................................7-8
Demonstrated Ability ................................................7-8
Keeping the Student Informed ...................................7-8
Correction of Student Errors ......................................7-8
Aviation Instructors and Exams .....................................7-8
Knowledge Test ..........................................................7-8
Practical Test ..............................................................7-9
Professional Development .............................................7-9
Continuing Education .................................................7-9
Government ............................................................7-9
Educational/Training Institutions .........................7-10
Commercial Organizations ...................................7-10
Industry Organizations ..........................................7-10
Sources of Material ..................................................7-10
Printed Material ....................................................7-11
Electronic Sources ................................................7-11
Chapter Summary ........................................................7-11

Chapter 8: Techniques of Flight Instruction ........................8-1
Introduction ....................................................................8-1
Flight Instructor Qualifications  ......................................8-2
Practical Flight Instructor Strategies ..............................8-2
Obstacles to Learning During Flight Instruction ...........8-3
Unfair Treatment ........................................................8-3
Impatience ..................................................................8-3
Worry or Lack of Interest ...........................................8-3
Physical Discomfort, Illness, Fatigue, and Dehydration ...........8-4
Fatigue ....................................................................8-4
Dehydration and Heatstroke ...................................8-5
Apathy Due to Inadequate Instruction .......................8-5
Anxiety .......................................................................8-5
Demonstration-Performance Training Delivery
Method ...........................................................................8-6
Explanation Phase ......................................................8-6
Demonstration Phase ..................................................8-6
Student Performance and Instructor
Supervision Phases .....................................................8-6
Evaluation Phase ........................................................8-6
The Telling-and-Doing Technique .............................8-7
Instructor Tells—Instructor Does ..............................8-7
Student Tells—Instructor Does ..............................8-8
Student Tells—Student Does ..................................8-8
Positive Exchange of Flight Controls ............................8-8
Background ................................................................8-9
Procedure ....................................................................8-9
Sterile Cockpit Rule .......................................................8-9
Use of Distractions .........................................................8-9
Integrated Flight Instruction ........................................8-10
Development of Habit Patterns ................................8-10
Operating Efficiency ................................................8-10
Procedures ................................................................8-11
See and Avoid ..........................................................8-11
Assessment of Piloting Ability ....................................8-11
Demonstrated Ability ..............................................8-12
PostFlight  Evaluation ...............................................8-12
First Solo Flight ...................................................8-12
Post-Solo Debriefing .............................................8-12
Correction of Student Errors ....................................8-12
Pilot Supervision ......................................................8-12
Dealing with Normal Challenges .............................8-13
Visualization .............................................................8-13
Practice Landings .....................................................8-13
Practical Test Recommendations .............................8-13
Aeronautical Decision-Making ...................................8-14
The Decision-Making Process .................................8-15
Defining the Problem ............................................8-15
Choosing a Course of Action ................................8-15
Implementing the Decision and Evaluating
the Outcome ..........................................................8-17
Factors Affecting Decision-Making .........................8-17
Recognizing Hazardous Attitudes ........................8-17
Stress Management ...............................................8-18
Use of Resources ......................................................8-19
Internal Resources ................................................8-19
External Resources ...............................................8-19
Workload Management ........................................8-20
Chapter Summary ........................................................8-21

Chapter 9: Risk Management ................................................9-1
Introduction ....................................................................9-1
Defining Risk Management ...........................................9-2
Principles of Risk Management .................................9-3
Accept No Unnecessary Risk .................................9-3
Make Risk Decisions at the Appropriate Level ......9-3
Accept Risk When Benefits Outweigh the Costs ............9-3
Integrate Risk Management Into Planning at All Levels ......9-3
Risk Management Process .........................................9-3
Step 1: Identify the Hazard .....................................9-3
Step 2: Assess the Risk ...........................................9-3
Step 3: Analyze Risk Control Measures .................9-3
Step 4: Make Control Decisions .............................9-3
Step 5: Implement Risk Controls ............................9-4
Step 6: Supervise and Review ................................9-4
Implementing the Risk Management Process ............9-4
Level of Risk ..................................................................9-4
Assessing Risk ...............................................................9-4
Likelihood of an Event ...........................................9-4
Severity of an Event ................................................9-5
Mitigating Risk ..............................................................9-5
IMSAFE Checklist .....................................................9-5
The PAVE Checklist .................................................9-6
Three-P Model for Pilots ...............................................9-8
Hazard List for Aviation Technicians ............................9-9
Pilot Self-Assessment ....................................................9-9
Situational Awareness ....................................................9-9
Obstacles to Maintaining Situational Awareness .....9-10
Operational Pitfalls ...................................................9-11
Single-Pilot Resource Management (SRM) .................9-11
SRM and the 5P Check ...........................................9-13
The Plan ...............................................................9-14
The Plane .............................................................9-14
The Pilot ...............................................................9-14
The Passengers .....................................................9-14
The Programming ................................................9-15
Information Management .........................................9-15
Task Management (TM) ...........................................9-15
Automation Management .........................................9-15
Teaching Decision-Making Skills ................................9-16
Assessing SRM Skills ..................................................9-17
Chapter Summary ........................................................9-18

Appendix A
References ..........................................................A-1

Appendix B
Developing a Test Item Bank ............................B-1

Appendix C
Certificates  Ratings, and Endorsements ........C-1

Appendix D
Personal Minimums Checklist ..........................D-1

Appendix E
Flight Instructor Endorsements ........................E-1

Appendix F
Relationships of Decision-Making Models .......F-1

Glossary ..............................................................G-1

Index ......................................................................I-1

Audience

Commercial, military, and general aviation flight instructors would all benefit from this comprehensive handbook. Because much of the content covers broad instructional techniques and is not limited to flight teaching alone, this handbook would be beneficial to any instructors, professors, and/or teachers of adults in technical, professional, medical, or vocational training courses where a high degree of integrity and safety are required by the student once his or her training is complete.

Product Details

Availability Details:
In Stock
USA Price:
$17.50
International Price:
$24.50
Publisher:
Transportation Dept., Federal Aviation Administration, Flight Standards Service
Year/Pages:
2008: 218 p.
Key Phrases:
  • Aircraft Pilots
Weight:
1.8125
Quantity Price:
Discount
Cover:
Paper
Unit of Issue (US):
1
Unit of Issue (Non-US):
1
Item available Date:
12/31/2008
Last Status Update:
03/01/2017
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