Assessment of Nontimber Forest Products in the Umited States Under Changing Conditions

Assessment of Nontimber Forest Products in the Umited States Under Changing Conditions
Title:
Assessment of Nontimber Forest Products in the United States Under Changing Conditions
Format:
Paperback
USA Price: 
Stock:
In stock
GPO Stock Number:
001-001-00717-0
ISBN:
9780160945885
Description

Nontimber forest products (NTFPs) are fundamental to the functioning of healthy forests and play vital roles in the cultures and economies of the people of the United States. However, these plants and fungi used for food, medicine, and other purposes have not been fully incorporated into management, policy, and resource valuation. This report is a forest-sectorwide assessment of the state of the knowledge regarding NTFPs science and management information for U.S. forests and rangelands (and hereafter referred to as the NTFP assessment). The NTFP assessment serves as a baseline science synthesis and provides information for managing nontimber forest resources in the United States. In addition, this NTFP assessment provides information for national-level reporting on natural capital and the ecosystem services NTFPs provide. The report also provides technical input to the 2017 National Climate Assessment (NCA) under development by the U.S. Global Change Research Program (USGCRP)

Table of Contents

Executive Summary ix

CHAPTER 1: Introduction 1

1.1 Literature Cited 7

CHAPTER 2: Nontimber Forest Products and Production 9

2.1 Nontimber Forest Products and their Production 11

2.1.1 What Are Nontimber Forest Products? 11

2.1.2 Plant and Fungi Organs Used 12

2.1.3 Scale of Harvest 12

2.1.4 Market Segments 14

2.1.5 Iconic Nontimber Forest Products 17

2.2 Silviculture for Temperate U.S. Nontimber Forest Products 22

2.2.1 Treatments and Site Conditions 22

2.2.2 Integrating Understory Nontimber Forest Products and Forest Management 24

2.2.3 Integrating Production of Timber and Nontimber Products 25

2.2.4 Considerations and Concerns for Integrating Timber and Nontimber Products 27

2.2.5 Challenges to Managing for Nontimber Forest Products 27

2.3 Forest Farming in Temperate United States 28

2.3.1 Approaches to Forest Farming 29

2.3.2 Common Forest Farmed Products 29

2.4 Market and Economic Considerations 30

2.5 Production in Alaska and Hawai’i 31

2.5.1 Alaska 31 2.5.2 Hawai’i 31

2.6 Production in the Caribbean and Pacific Insular United States 32

2.6.1 Environmental Setting 32

2.6.2 Caribbean, Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands 33

2.6.3 Insular Pacifc—American Samoa, Guam, Northern Mariana Islands 33

2.6.4 Opportunities 34 2.7 Inventory and Analysis 34

2.7.1 Current Approach to Forest Inventory 34

2.7.2 Status of Nontimber Forest Product Inventory 35

2.7.3 Using Forest Inventory and Analysis Data for Nontimber Forest Product Inventory 35

2.8 Tracking Nontimber Forest Products 37

2.8.1 Approaches, Methods, and Programs 38

2.8.2 Other Product Tracking Models 39

2.8.3 Challenges and Considerations for Tracking Products 41

2.9 Knowledge Gaps 42

2.10 Implications of Increased Climatic Variability for Production and Management 44

2.11 Key Findings 47 2.12 Key Information Needs 48

2.13 Conclusions 48

2.14 Literature Cited 49

CHAPTER 3: Ecological Dimensions of Nontimber Forest Product Harvest 59

3.1 Effects of Nontimber Forest Product Harvest on Plant Individuals and Populations 61

3.1.1 Management and Local Ecological Knowledge for Sustainable Harvest 62

3.1.2 Spatiotemporal Variation in Nontimber Forest Product Population Dynamics 63

3.1.3 Community Interactions and Ecosystem Dynamics 64

ASSESSMENT OF NONTIMBER FOREST PRODUCTS IN THE UNITED STATES UNDER CHANGING CONDITIONS V

3.2 Implications of Nontimber Forest Product Harvest for Ecological Systems 66

3.3 Sustainable Harvest of Key Nontimber Forest Product Species 67

3.3.1 American Ginseng 67 3.3.2 Common Beargrass 68

3.3.3 Black cohosh 68 3.3.4 Echinacea 69

3.3.5 Goldenseal 70 3.3.6 Osha 70 3.3.7 Pinyon Pine 71

3.3.8 Saw Palmetto 72 3.4 Effects of Climate Change on Nontimber Forest Products 73

3.4.1 Potential and Observed Species Responses to Climate Change 73

3.4.2 Vulnerability of Nontimber Forest Products to Climate Change 74

3.4.3 Climate-change Integrated Management of Nontimber Forest Product Species 74

3.5 Key Findings 75

3.6 Key Information Needs 75

3.7 Conclusions 76

3.8 Literature Cited 77

CHAPTER 4: Cultural Dimensions of Nontimber Forest Products 83

4.1 Nontimber Forest Products and Culture 85

4.2 Cultural Values and Functions of Nontimber Forest Products 86

4.2.1 Indigenous Cultures and Nontimber Forest Products 86

4.2.2 Settler and Immigrant Cultural Uses of Nontimber Forest Products 86

4.3 Nontimber Forest Product Social-Ecological Systems and Ecosystem Services 87

4.3.1 Management and Nontimber Forest Product Availability 88

4.3.2 Governance and Access to Nontimber Forest Products 89

4.3.3 Nontimber Forest Product Practices 89 4.3.4 Nontimber Forest Product Cultural Ecosystem Services 90

4.4 Impacts of Climatic Variability on Cultural Uses of Nontimber Forest Products 95

4.5 Key Findings 96 4.6 Key Information Needs 96

4.7 Conclusions 96 4.8 Literature Cited 97

CHAPTER 5: Social Dimensions of Nontimber Forest Products 101

5.1 Introduction 103

5.2 An Overview of Nontimber Forest Product Harvesters in the United States 104

5.3 Nontimber Forest Product Stewardship 106

5.3.1 Knowledge 106 5.3.2 Practices 107 5.3.3 Ethics 108

5.3.4 Stewardship 108

5.3.5 Integrating Local and Scientifc Knowledge 108

5.4 Stakeholder Organizations, Labor Issues, and Social Networks 110

5.5 Urban Harvesting and Social Justice 112

5.6 Key Findings 114

5.7 Key Information Needs 115

5.8 Conclusions 115

5.9 Literature Cited 115 VI ASSESSMENT OF NONTIMBER FOREST PRODUCTS IN THE UNITED STATES UNDER CHANGING CONDITIONS

CHAPTER 6: Economics of Nontimber Forest Products 119

6.1 Introduction to Economics of Nontimber Forest Products 121

6.2 Markets and Market Values 122

6.2.1 Formal Markets 123

6.2.2 Informal Markets 124

6.2.3 Examples of Economic Impact by Region and Species 125

6.3 Nonmarket Values of Nontimber Forest Products 129

6.3.1 Valuation Methodologies 129

6.3.2 Estimates of Nonmarket Values 130

6.4 Contribution of Nontimber Forest Products to Farm and Household Finance 131

6.4.1 Financial Analysis Methods and Measures 132

6.4.2 Producers and Production Systems 132

6.4.3 Business Models 132 6.4.4 Factors Infuencing Proftability 133

6.4.5 Estimates of Income from Wild-Harvesting 134

6.4.6 Estimates of Forest Farming Proftability 134

6.5 Contribution of Nontimber Forest Products to Household Well-Being 135

6.5.1 Income Needs and Natural Insurance 136

6.5.2 Social Capital 136 6.5.3 Direct Consumption 136

6.5.4 Conditions for Contribution to Well-Being 137

6.5.5 Building Our Understanding of the Role of Nontimber Forest Products in Household Well-Being 137

6.6 Factors Driving Nontimber Forest Product Harvest and Adoption of Forest Farming 138

6.6.1 Wild-Harvesting 138

6.6.2 Forest Farming 139

6.6.3 Motivations and Drivers of Nontimber Forest Products Production and Harvest 140

6.7 Potential Impacts of Climatic Variability on Nontimber Forest Product Economics 141

6.7.1 Risks and Uncertainties 141

6.7.2 Potential Impacts on Individuals and Communities 142

6.8 Key Findings 144

6.9 Key Information Needs 144

6.10 Conclusions 145

6.11 Literature Cited 146

CHAPTER 7: Laws, Policies, and Regulations Concerning Nontimber Forest Products 151

7.1 Overview 153

7.2 Federal Laws and Administrative Dimensions 156

7.2.1 Regulations and Policies 156

7.2.2 Federal Agencies That Manage Nontimber Forest Products 157

7.2.3 Summary of Federal Regulations and Policies 162

7.3 Policies Applicable to Indigenous Peoples 163

7.3.1 National Laws and Authorities 163

7.3.2 Native Peoples of Alaska, Hawai’i, and U.S. Territories 165

7.3.3 Summary 166 7.4 State Laws and Administrative Dimensions 166

7.4.1 State Regulatory Agencies 166

7.4.2 Regulation of Plants on State Lands 168

7.4.3 Summary of State Regulations 169

7.5 Local and Municipal Laws and Administrative Dimensions 170

7.5.1 Local Rules and Regulations 170

7.5.2 Local Administrative Dimensions, Policy, and Management 172

7.5.3 Summary 172 

Audience

Ecologists, scientists, professors, instructors, students of non-timber forest products, USDA officials of the Forest Service engaged in the administration and study of forests of the U.S., harvesters of non-forest products, stakeholders in non-forest products, land managers.

Product Details

Availability Details:
In Stock
USA Price:
$46.00
International Price:
$64.40
Publisher:
Agriculture Dept., Forest Service, Southern Research Station
Author:
  • Chamberlain, James L.
Key Phrases:
  • Agriculture Department General Technical Report SRS 232
  • Nontimber Forest Products
  • Forests and Forestry
Weight:
2.0625
Quantity Price:
Discount
Cover:
Paper
Unit of Issue (US):
1
Unit of Issue (Non-US):
1
Record Creation Date:
04/26/2018
Last Status Update:
04/18/2019
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