United States Army in World War II: Manhattan, the Army and the Atomic Bomb (ePub eBook)

United States Army in World War II: Manhattan, the Army and the Atomic Bomb (ePub eBook)
Title:
United States Army in World War 2, Special Studies, Manhattan, the Army, and the Atomic Bomb (Clothbound)
Format:
Hardcover
USA Price: 
Stock:
In stock
GPO Stock Number:
008-029-00132-2
ISBN:
9780160019395
Description

The U.S. Army played a key role in the formation and administration of the Manhattan Project, the World War II organization which produced the atomic bombs that not only contributed decisively to ending the war with Japan but also opened the way to a new atomic age.

The volume begins with a prologue, designed to provide the reader with a brief survey of the history of atomic energy and to explain in layman’s terms certain technical aspects of atomic science essential to an understanding of the major problems occurring in the development of an atomic weapon.

Early chapters describe the beginning of the Army’s atomic mission, including the formation of the Manhattan District, the first steps in acquiring the means to produce atomic weapons and the appointment of General Groves.  Subsequent topical chapters trace the building and operation of the large-scale process plants for the production of fissionable materials; the administration of a broad range of support activities, such as security and community management; and the fabrication, testing, and combat employment of atomic bombs.  A concluding section describes how the Army dealt with the difficult problems arising during its unexpectedly prolonged postwar trusteeship of the project until December 1946, when the newly created civilian agency – the United States Atomic Energy Commission – assumed responsibility for atomic energy matters.

 

Other related products:

Building the Bombs: A History of the Nuclear Weapons Complex is available here: https://bookstore.gpo.gov/products/sku/061-000-00968-0

Autonomous Weapon Systems: A Brief Survey of Developmental, Operational, Legal, and Ethical Issues is available here: https://bookstore.gpo.gov/products/sku/008-000-01177-0

United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission Information Digest 2010-2011 -Print Paperback format can be found here: https://bookstore.gpo.gov/products/sku/052-020-01029-3

World War II resources collection can be found here: https://bookstore.gpo.gov/catalog/us-military-history/battles-wars/world...

Other products produced by the U.S. Army, Center of Military History (CMH) can be found here: https://bookstore.gpo.gov/agency/1061

Table of Contents

Table of Contents:
PROLOGUE: A HISTORY OF ATOMIC ENERGY TO 1939.................. 3
Uranium and Fission..................................................................... 8
Efforts To Enlist Support of the U.S. Government............................ 12
Part One: Beginnings of the Atomic Mission
Chapter
I. THE ARMY AND THE ATOMIC ENERGY PROGRAM,
1939-1942..................................................................................... 19
Origins of the Army's Role ............................................................. 19
Decision To Develop Atomic Weapons.............................................. 21
Establishment of the NDRC and OSRD.......................................... 26
New Advances in Atomic Research, 1940-1941 .............................. 28
Top Policy Group: Preparing for Army Take Over ............................ 30
Progress in Research and Development: The Nuclear Steeplechase ....... 35
II. ESTABISHING THE MANHATTAN DISTRICT .................... 40
Organizing the District................................................................... 41
Army-OSRD Planning Meeting, 25 June 1942 ............................... 46
Progress in Research and Development............................................. 50
III. FIRST STEPS FOR WEAPON DEVELOPMENT ....................... 55
Securing an Architect-Engineer-Manager ......................................... 55
Obtaining Funds........................................................................... 56
Securing a Priority Rating ............................................................. 57
Procuring Essential Materials......................................................... 61
Site Selection................................................................................. 67
Reaching Decisions: The Meeting at Bohemian Grove ....................... 70
IV. GENERAL GROVES TAKES COMMAND.................................. 73
Reorganization and the Selection of Groves ...................................... 73
First Measures .............................................................................. 78
Establishment of Los Alamos .......................................................... 82
Manhattan Project Organization and Operation ............................... 88
Part Two: Producing Fissionable Materials
V. ORGANIZING FOR PRODUCTION........................................... 95
Plutonium Project.......................................................................... 95
Reassessment of Processes To Produce a Bomb .................................. 101
Contract Negotiations..................................................................... 105
Hanford Engineer Works ............................................................... 108
Plutonium Semiworks: Argonne vs. Tennessee ................................... 111
Program Funding.......................................................................... 115
VI. THE ELECTROMAGNETIC PROCESS ..................................... 117
Electromagnetic Research and the Army, 1942-1943 ....................... 118
Research and Development, 1943-1945: Radiation Laboratory ........ 120
Design and Engineering, 1943-1945 ............................................. 126
Building the Electromagnetic Plant.................................................. 130
Plant Operation ............................................................................ 140
VII. THE GASEOUS DIFFUSION PROCESS .................................... 149
Gaseous Diffusion Research and the Army, 1942-1943.................... 149
Design and Engineering................................................................. 150
Building the Gaseous Diffusion Plant.............................................. 159
Plant Operation ............................................................................ 165
VIII. THE LIQUID THERMAL DIFFUSION PROCESS..................... 172
Research and Development: The Role of the Navy ............................ 172
Reassessment: Decision for Full-scale Development............................. 174
Plant Design, Engineering, and Construction ................................... 178
Plant Operation ............................................................................ 180
IX. THE PILE PROCESS ................................................................... 184
Research and Development: Metallurgical Laboratory........................ 185
Organization for Plutonium Production............................................ 198
The Semiworks: Clinton Laboratories............................................... 204
The Hanford Production Plant....................................................... 210
Part Three: Support Activities
X. ANGLO-AMERICAN COLLABORATION.................................. 227
Breakdown of Interchange .............................................................. 227
The Quebec Agreement................................................................... 232
Implementing the Agreement............................................................ 242
New Partnership Strains: Repatriation of French Scientists................ 248
XI. SECURITY.................................................................................... 253
Early Aspects ............................................................................... 253
The District's Security System.......................................................... 254
Counterintelligence Activities........................................................... 259
Safeguarding Military Information.................................................. 268
XII. FOREIGN INTELLIGENCE OPERATIONS............................... 280
Organization of the ALSOS Mission ............................................... 280
ALSOS Operations in Italy ............................................................ 281
Manhattan's Special Intelligence Activities, 1944............................. 282
ALSOS Operations in Western Europe, 1944-1945......................... 285
XIII. THE RAW MATERIALS PROGRAM.......................................... 292
Geographic Search and Field Exploration......................................... 292
Ore Control Agency: Combined Development Trust............................ 295
Ore Acquisition in Foreign Areas..................................................... 299
XIV. THE FEED MATERIALS PROGRAM ......................................... 307
Program Organization and Support Activities................................... 307
Feed Materials Procurement............................................................ 310
Feed Materials Production.............................................................. 314
Quality Control Program................................................................ 317
XV. LAND ACQUISITION.................................................................. 319
Clinton Engineer Works................................................................. 319
Los Alamos................................................................................... 328
Hanford Engineer Works ............................................................... 331
Other Sites.................................................................................... 342
XVI. MANPOWER PROCUREMENT .................................................. 344
Personnel Organization .................................................................. 345
Scientific and Technical Personnel................................................... 348
Industrial Labor............................................................................ 350
Civilian and Military Personnel...................................................... 355
XVII. MANPOWER CONSERVATION................................................. 363
Labor Turnover: The Problem and Its Cure ..................................... 363
Special Problems With the Selective Service System ............................ 366
Labor Relations: Union Activities and Work Stoppages ..................... 369
XVIII. ELECTRIC POWER..................................................................... 377
Power Requirements and Sources..................................................... 377
Implementation of the Power Program ............................................. 386
Distribution: Clinton Engineer Works.............................................. 388
Distribution: Hanford Engineer Works ............................................ 391
XIX. COMMUNICATIONS AND TRANSPORTATION..................... 394
Communications............................................................................ 394
Transportation.............................................................................. 397
XX. HEALTH AND SAFETY .............................................................. 410
The Health Program...................................................................... 411
The Safety Program....................................................................... 426
XXI. THE ATOMIC COMMUNITIES IN TENNESSEE ..................... 432
Oak Ridge: The Operating Community ............................................ 432
The Construction Camps ................................................................ 440
Community Management................................................................ 443
XXII. THE ATOMIC COMMUNITIES IN WASHINGTON STATE... 450
Selecting Sites................................................................................ 450
Hanford: The Construction Camp ................................................... 452
Richland: The Operating Community .............................................. 456
Community Management................................................................ 460
XXIII. THE ATOMIC COMMUNITIES IN NEW MEXICO.................. 465
Los Alamos: The Operating Community ........................................... 465
Trinity: The Base Camp................................................................. 478
Part Four: The Bomb
XXIV. THE LOS ALAMOS WEAPON PROGRAM................................ 485
Planning Phase............................................................................. 485
Laboratory Administration.............................................................. 491
Post Administration ....................................................................... 496
XXV. WEAPON DEVELOPMENT AND TESTING.............................. 503
Building the Bomb......................................................................... 503
Project Trinity: The Test of the Bomb.............................................. 511
XXVI. THE ATOMIC BOMBING OF JAPAN........................................ 519
Preparations for an Atomic Bombing Mission ................................... 519
The Decision To Use the Bomb ....................................................... 530
Dropping the Bomb........................................................................ 534
The Surrender of Japan.................................................................. 541
Survey of the Bombing Effects......................................................... 543
Part Five: Completing the Atomic Mission
XXVII. THE ATOMIC AGE AND ITS PROBLEMS ............................... 553
The Atomic Story: Informing the Public ........................................... 553
Atomic Energy: Planning for Postwar Control.................................. 562
XXVIII. THE ARMY AND THE ATOMIC ENERGY PROGRAM,
1945-1947..................................................................................... 579
A Postwar Trusteeship ................................................................... 579
The Final Act: Transfer to Civilian Control..................................... 596
EPILOGUE: AN ATOMIC LEGACY.......................................................... 602
APPENDIX—EINSTEIN'S LETTER .......................................................... 609
BIBLIOGRAPHICAL NOTE ...................................................................... 611
GUIDE TO ARCHIVAL COLLECTIONS ................................................. 627
LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS....................................................................... 631
INDEX.......................................................................................................... 643
TABLES
CHARTS
MAPS
ILLUSTRATIONS

Audience

For both soldiers and civilians this history of the Army's earlier experience in dealing successfully with the then novel problems of atomic science seems likely to offer some instructive parallels for finding appropriate answers to the problems faced in today's ever more technologically complex world.  This publication is appropriate for members of government, policymakers, historians, students studying military history/WWII history/history of nuclear engineering, and people in the technology and engineering sectors.  In addition, this publication would be of interest to members of the general public with an interest in the history of the Manhattan Project, WWII, the military, atomic energy and its use in military functions.

Product Details

Availability Details:
In Stock
USA Price:
$14.00
International Price:
$19.60
Publisher:
Defense Dept., Army, Center of Military History
Author:
  • Jones, Vincent C.
Key Phrases:
  • Special Studies
  • Military History
  • Army History
Weight:
4.25
Quantity Price:
Discount
Cover:
Cloth
Unit of Issue (US):
1
Unit of Issue (Non-US):
1
Record Creation Date:
10/02/2007
Last Status Update:
11/12/2019
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