Overview and Compilation of United States Trade Statutes, 2001 Edition

Overview and Compilation of United States Trade Statutes, 2001 Edition
Title:
Overview and Compilation of United States Trade Statutes, 2001 Edition
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Description

WMCP: 107-4. Committee Print. June 2001. Provides a compilation of the major provisions of Federal law which are directly related to the conduct of United States international trade. Also describes major multilateral trade organizations. 107th Congress, 1st Session. Item 1028-A. Trade partnership rules for “enemy countries” are also dealt with. The Trade Statutes include: rules for inspecting imported meat, protecting wildlife and endangered species, helping other countries grow their economies, agricultural trade agreements and prohibitions, Congressional trade policy functions (including fast track procedures that involve the president), economic authority in national emergencies, and how to prevent imports from Communist countries from disrupting the American economy.

Table of Contents

Table of Contents:

Letter of transmittal p. iii
Preface p. v
Subject index p. 1171

Part I: OVERVIEW

Chapter 1: Tariff and customs laws p. 1
Harmonized Tariff Schedule of the United States p. 1
Generalized System of Preferences (GSP) p. 14
Title V of the Trade Act of 1974, as amended p. 14
Caribbean Basin Initiative (CBI)
Caribbean Basin Trade Partnership Act p. 22
Andean Initiative p. 34
African Growth and Opportunity Act p. 37
Customs valuation p. 48
The GATT/WTO Customs Valuation Agreement p. 49
Current law p. 51
Customs user fees p. 58
Other customs laws p. 63
Country-of-origin marking p. 63
NAFTA rules of origin p. 66
Drawback p. 67
Protests and administrative review p. 69
Copyrights and trademark enforcement p. 71
Penalties p. 72
Import prohibitions/restrictions relating to dog and cat fur products p. 74
Commercial operations p. 75
Foreign trade zones p. 78
Chapter 2: Trade remedy laws p. 83
The antidumping and countervailing duty laws p. 83
CVD law: subsidy determination p. 83
AD law: less-than-fair value (LTFV) determination p. 89
AD and CVD laws: material injury determination p. 94
Issues common to AD and CVD investigations p. 95
Enforcement of U.S. rights under trade agreements and response to certain foreign practices: sections 301-310 of the Trade Act of 1974, as amended p. 108
International consultations and dispute settlement p. 109
Enforcement authority and procedures (section 301) p. 110
Identification of intellectual property rights priority countries (Special 301) p. 116
Identification of trade liberalization priorities (Super 301) p. 123
Foreign direct investment p. 127
Foreign anticompetitive practices p. 128
Unfair practices in import trade (section 337 of the Tariff Act of 1930, as amended) p. 128
Import relief (safeguard) authorities p. 132
Sections 201-204 of the Trade Act of 1974, as amended p. 132
Section 406 of the Trade Act of 1974: market disruption by imports from Communist countries p. 139
Sections 421-423 of the Trade Act of 1974: market disruption by imports from the People’s Republic of China p. 140
Section 1102 of the Trade Agreements Act of 1979: public auction of import licenses p. 142
Trade adjustment assistance p. 142
  Chapters 2, 3, and 5 of title II of the Trade Act of 1974, as amended p. 142
  TAA program for workers p. 144
  NAFTA Worker Security Act p. 149
Chapter 3: Other laws regulating imports p. 153
Authorities to restrict imports of agricultural and textile products p. 153
  Section 204 of the Agricultural Act of 1956, as amended p. 153
   Multifiber Arrangement (MFA) p. 153
   Uruguay Round Agreement on Textiles and clothing p. 156
   Bilateral textile agreements p. 158
Textiles and apparel trade under the North American Free Trade Agreement
p. 159
Section 22 of the Agricultural Adjustment Act of 1933 p. 159
Agriculture trade under the North American Free Trade Agreement Implementation Act p. 160
Agriculture trade under the Uruguay Round Agreements Act p. 162
Meat Import Act of 1979 p. 164
Reciprocal meat inspection requirement p. 164
Sugar tariff-rate quotas under Harmonized Tariff Schedule authorities p. 165
Import prohibitions on certain agricultural commodities under marketing orders (section 8e of the Agricultural Adjustment Act, as amended) p. 166
Authorities to restrict imports under certain environmental laws p. 167
  Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972, as amended p. 167
  International Dolphin Conservation Act of 1992 p. 168
  Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended p. 169
  Tariff Act of 1930, as amended: wild mammals and birds p. 169
Section 8 of the Fishermen’s Protective Act of 1967, as amended (“Pelly Amendment”) p. 170
  High Seas Driftnet Fisheries Enforcement Act p. 170
  Wild Bird Conservation Act of 1992 p. 171
  Atlantic Tunas Convention Act of 1995 p. 171
  Conservation of Sea Turtles p. 172
National security import restrictions p. 174
  Section 232 of the Trade Expansion Act of 1962 p. 174
  Section 233 of the Trade Expansion Act of 1962 p. 175
Balance of payments authority (section 122 of the Trade Act of 1974) p. 176
Product standards p. 178
  Agreement on Technical Barriers to Trade p. 179
  Uruguay Round Agreement on Technical Barriers to Trade p. 181
  The North American Free Trade Agreement p. 182
  Title IV of the Trade Agreements Act of 1979, as amended p. 188
Government procurement p. 183
  Buy American Act p. 184
  1979 GATT Agreement on Government Procurement p. 186
  1994 WTO Agreement on Government Procurement p. 186
  The North American Free Trade Agreement p. 187
  Title III of the Trade Agreements Act of 1979, as amended p. 188
  Title VII of the Omnibus Trade and Competitiveness Act of 1988, as amended
p. 189
Chapter 4: Laws regulating export activities p. 195
Export controls p. 195
  Background p. 195
  Export Administration Act of 1979 p. 196
  Export Administration Amendments Act of 1985 p. 198
Omnibus Trade and Competitiveness Act of 1988 p. 199
Export promotion of goods and services p. 200
  Export Enhancement Act of 1988 p. 200
  Fair Trade in Auto Parts Act of 1988 p. 201
Agricultural export sales and promotion p. 202
  Public Law 480 p. 202
  Export cred guarantee and export promotion programs p. 202
Chapter 5: Authorities relating to political or economic security p. 205
International Emergency Economic Powers Act p. 205
Trading with the Enemy Act p. 211
Narcotics Control Trade Act p. 214
The International Security and Development Cooperation Act of 1985 p. 215
The Iran and Libya Sanctions Act of 1996 p. 215
Embargo on transactions with Cuba p. 216
The Cuban Liberty and Democratic Solidarity Act p. 218
Iraq Sanctions Act of 1990 p. 220
Exemptions for food and medicine from U.S. International Trade Sanctions p. 220
The Hong Kong Policy Act p. 222
Section 27 of the Merchant Marine Act, 1920 (Jones Act) p. 222
Section 721 of the Defense Production Act of 1950, as amended (“Exon/Florio”) p. 223
Chapter 6: Reciprocal trade agreements p. 225
Reciprocal trade agreement objectives and authorities p. 225
  Trade negotiating objectives p. 226
  General tariff authority p. 227
  Multilateral trade agreement authority p. 228
  Bilateral trade agreement authority p. 229
  Reciprocal competitive opportunities p. 230
  Specific trade agreement authorities p. 232
  Trade negotiation procedural requirements p. 232
Congressional fast track implementing procedures p. 232
Uruguay Round Agreements p. 235
  Uruguay Round Agreements Act p. 237
Specific foreign trade barriers p. 241
  Sections 181 and 182 of the Trade Act of 1974, as amended p. 241
  Telecommunications Trade Act of 1988 p. 242
Normal Trade Relations (nondiscriminatory) treatment p. 246
North American trade relations p. 259
  North American Free Trade Agreement p. 260
  North American Free Trade Agreement Implementation Act of 1993 p. 260
United States-Israel trade relations p. 261
  Title IV of the Trade and Tariff Act of 1984
  United States-Israel Free Trade Area Agreement p. 263
  United States-Israel Free Trade Area Implementation Act of 1985 p. 264
  West Bank and Gaza Strip Free Trade Benefits p. 264
United States-Canada trade relations p. 265
  United States-Canada Free-Trade Agreement p. 266
  United States-Canada Free-Trade Agreement Implementation Act of 1988 p. 267
Chapter 7: Organization of trade policy functions p. 269
Congress p. 269
Executive branch p. 270
  Interagency trade process p. 270
  Office of the U.S. Trade Representative p. 271
  Department of Commerce p. 273
  U.S. Customs Service p. 274
U.S. International Trade commission p. 275
Private or public sector advisory committees p. 276

Part II: COMPILATION OF U.S. TRADE STATUTES

Chapter 8: Tariff and customs laws p. 279
A. Implementation of the Harmonized Tariff Schedule of the United States
Sections 1201-1217 of the Omnibus Trade and Competitiveness Act of 1988 p. 279
Section 484(e) of the Tariff Act of 1930, as amended p. 288
B. Excerpts from the Harmonized Tariff Schedule of the United States p. 279
(HTS) relating to special duty treatment p. 289
  1. American goods returned (HTS item 9801.00.10) p. 289
  2. American goods repaired or altered abroad (HTS) items 9802.00.40, .50 p. 291
   American metal articles processed abroad (HTS item 9802.00.60) p. 291
   American components assembled abroad (HTS item 9802.00.80) p. 291
  3. Personal (tourist exemptions (HTS items 9804.00.65, .70, .72) p. 296
4. Noncommercial Importations of Limited Value (HTS items 9816.00.20, and 9816.00.40) p. 300
5. Classification of Personal Effect of Participants in International Athletic Events (HTS items 9817. 60.00) p. 302
6. Products of U.S. insular possessions (General Note 3(a)(iv)) p. 304
7. Rates of duty on certain motor vehicles (General Note 3(d)) p. 305
C. Generalized System of Preferences p. 307
Title V of the Trade Act of 1974, as amended p. 307
General Note 4 of the Harmonized Tariff Schedule p. 319
D. Caribbean Basin Initiative (CBI) p. 321
Caribbean Basin Economic Recovery Act, as amended p. 321
Caribbean Basin Economic Recovery Expansion Act of 1990 p. 348
Section 423 of the Tax Reform Act of 1986, as amended (treatment of imports of ethyl alcohol) p. 354
General Note 7(a) of the Harmonized Tariff Schedule p. 358
E. Andean Initiative (Andean Trade Preference Act, as amended) p. 358
F. African Growth and Opportunity Act p. 367
G. Customs valuation (Section 402 of the Tariff Act of 1930, as amended) p. 381
H. Customs user fees p. 389
Section 13031 of the Consolidated Budget Reconciliation Act of 1985, as amended p. 389
Sections 111(f), 112, and 113 of the Customs and Trade Act of 1990, as amended p. 402
  Section 1893(f) of the Tax Reform Act of 1986, as amended p. 403
I. Other customs laws p. 403
  1. Country of origin marking p. 403
   Section 304 of the Tariff Act of 1930, as amended p. 403
Section 1907 (b) and (c) of the Omnibus Trade and Competitiveness Act of 1988 p. 410
Section 210 of the Motor Vehicle Information and Cost Savings Act p. 411
  2. Drawback (section 313 of the Tariff Act of 1930, as amended) p. 424
  3. Entry of merchandise (section 484 of the Tariff Act of 1930, as amended)
p. 424
  4. Protests and further administrative reviews p. 429
  5. Copyrights and trademark enforcement p. 435
   Section 101 of the Copyright Revision Act of 1976 p. 435
   Section 526 of the Tariff Act of 1930, as amended p. 436
   Section 431 of the Tariff Act of 1930, as amended p. 440
  6. Penalties (sections 592 and 592A of the Tariff Act of 1930, as amended) p. 440
7. National Customs Automation Program (sections 411-414 of the Tariff Act of 1930, as amended) p. 452
8. Commercial operations p. 456
Section 9503(c) of the Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act of 1987 p. 456
Section 301 of the Customs Procedural Reform and Simplification Act of 1978, as amended p. 456
J. Foreign Trade Zones (Act of June 18, 1934, as amended) p. 459
K. Implementation of the GATT Agreement on Trade in civil Aircraft p. 468
Title VI of the Trade Agreements Act of 1979 p. 468
Section 234 of the Trade and Tariff Act of 1984 p. 469
General Note 6 of the Harmonized Tariff Schedule p. 470
Chapter 9: Trade remedy laws p. 473
A. Authorities to respond to foreign subsidy and dumping practices p. 473
  1. Countervailing duties p. 473
   Section 753 of the Tariff Act of 1930, as amended p. 473
   Section 261 (a)-(c) of the Uruguay Round Agreements Act p. 477
Subtitle A of title VII (sections 701-709) of the Tariff Act of 1930, as amended p. 478
2. Antidumping duties (subtitle B of title VII (sections 731-739) of the Tariff Act of 1930, as amended) p. 501
3. Administrative review of antidumping and countervailing duties (subtitle C of title VII (sections 751, 752, 761, and 762) of the Tariff Act of 1930, as amended) p. 527
4. General provisions relating to antidumping and countervailing duties (subtitle D of the VII (sections 771-782) of the Tariff Act of 1930, as amended) p. 540
5. Continued dumping and subsidies offset p. 597
6. Judicial and panel review of antidumping and countervailing duty actions p. 600
Section 516A of the Tariff Act of 1930, as amended p. 600
Section 129 of the Uruguay Round Agreements Act p. 613
7. Third-country dumping (section 1317 of the Omnibus Trade and Competitiveness Act of 1988) p. 616
8. Antidumping petitions by third countries (section 783 of the Tariff Act of 1930, as amended) p. 617
9. Antidumping Act of 1916 p. 618
B. Enforcement of United States rights under trade agreements and response to certain foreign trade practices p. 621
Sections 301-310 of the Trade Act of 1974, as amended p. 621
Sections 281 and 282 of the Uruguay Round Agreements Act, as amended p. 637
Section 307(b) of the Trade and Tariff Act of 1984 p. 645
Foreign air transportation (section 2 of the International Air Transportation Fair Competitiveness Act of 1974, as amended, and the Federal Aviation Act of 1958, as amended) p. 646
Section 19 of the Merchant Marine Act of 1920, as amended p. 648
Section 10002 of the Foreign Shipping Practices Act of 1988 p. 651
C. Unfair practices in import trade (section 337 of the Tariff Act of 1930, as amended) p. 654
D. Safeguard actions (sections 201-204 of the Trade Act of 1974, as amended p. 662
E. Relief from market disruption by imports from Communist countries (section 406 of the Trade Act of 1974, as amended) p. 680
F. Relief from market disruption by imports from Communist countries (section 406 of the Trade Act of 1974, as amended) p. 680
G. Authority to auction import licenses (section 1102 of the Trade Agreements Act of 1979) p. 691
H. Trade adjustment assistance (chapters 2, 3, 4, and 5 title II of the Trade Act of 1974, as amended) p. 691
I. Sections 401 and 408 of the Trade and Development Act of 2000 p. 724
Chapter 10: Other laws regulation imports p. 727
A. Authorities to restrict imports of agricultural and textile products p. 727
Section 204 of the Agricultural Act of 1956, as amended p. 727
Section 22 of the Agricultural Adjustment Act of 1933, as amended p. 727
Tariff-rate quotas and safeguards (sections 404 and 405 of the Uruguay Round Agreements Act) p. 729
Reciprocal meat inspection requirement (section 20(h) of the Federal Meat Inspection Act) p. 732
Sugar tariff-rate quotas under headnote authority p. 732
Import prohibitions on certain agricultural commodities under marketing orders (section 8e of the Agricultural Adjustment Act, as amended) p. 736
B. Authorities to restrict imports under certain environmental laws p. 738
Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972, as amended (excerpts) p. 738
Section 9 of the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended p. 753
Section 527 of the Tariff Act of 1930, as amended p. 757
Section 8 of the Fishermen’s Protective Act of 1967, as amended p. 762
High Seas Driftnet Fisheries Enforcement Act (excerpts) p. 764
Sections 105 and 108 of the Wild Bird Conservation Act of 1992 p. 769
Atlantic tunas Convention Act of 1975, as amended (excerpts) p. 771
Conservation of Sea Turtles p. 773
C. National security import restrictions (sections 232 and 233 of the Trade Expansion Act of 1962, as amended) p. 774
D. Balance of payments authority (section 122 of the Trade Act of 1974) p. 777
E. Implementation of the GATT Agreement of Technical Barriers to Trade (product standards) (title IV of the Trade Agreements Act of 1979) p. 780
F. Government procurement p. 790
1. Buy American requirements p. 790
Buy American Act (title III of the Act of March 3, 1933, as amended) p. 790
Section 833 of the Defense Production Act of 1950, as amended p. 795
Act of October 29, 1949 p. 795
2. Implementation of the GATT Agreement on Government Procurement (Title III of the Trade Agreements Act 1979, as amended) p. 796
Chapter 11: Laws, regulation export activities p. 811
A. Export controls p. 811
Export Administration Act of 1979, as amended p. 811
B. Export financing and promotion p. 821
  1. Agriculture export sales and promotion p. 821
Agricultural Trade Development and Assistance Act of 1954, as amended (excerpts) p. 821
Section 1123 of the Food Security Act of 1985 p. 826
2. Export promotion of goods and services p. 827
Sections 2303, 2306, and 2312 of the Export Enhancement Act of 1988, as amended p. 827
Chapter 12: Authorities relating to political or economic security p. 833
A. Economic authorities in national emergencies p. 833
International Emergency Economic Powers Act, as amended p. 833
Section 5(b) of the Trading With the Enemy Act, as amended p. 837
B. Trade Sanctions against uncooperative major drug producing or drug-transit countries (Narcotics Control Trade Act) p. 839
C. Economic sanctions against terrorism or missile proliferation p. 845
Sections 504 and 505 of the International Security and Development Cooperation Act of 1985 p. 845
Section 73 of the Arms Export Control Act p. 846
D. Economic sanctions against chemical and biological weapons p. 848
Chemical and Biological Weapons Control and Warfare Elimination Act of 1991 p. 848
Section 81 of the Arms Export Control Act p. 856
E. Embargo on trade with Cuba p. 859
Section 620(a) of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961, as amended p. 859
Cuban Democracy Act of 1992 (title XVII of the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 1993) p. 860
Cuban Liberty and Democratic Solidarity (LIBERTAD) Act of 1996 (excerpts) p. 867
F. Economic sanctions against Iraq, Iran, and Libya p. 875
Iraq Sanctions Act of 1990 (sections 586-586J of the Foreign Assistance and Related Programs Appropriation Act, 1991) (excerpts) p. 875
Iran-Iraq Arms Non-Proliferation Act of 1992 (title XVI of the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 1993) p. 880
Compliance with United Nations sanctions against Iraq p. 883
Iran and Libya Sanctions Act of 1996 p. 884
G. United States-Hong Kong Policy Act of 1992 p. 900
H. Restrictions on transport of merchandise by foreign vessels (section 27 of the Merchant Marine Act, 1920, as amended) p. 907
I. Authority to review certain mergers, acquisitions, and takeovers (section 721 of the Defense Production Act of 1950, as amended) p. 910
Chapter 13: Reciprocal trade agreements p. 913
A. U.S. negotiating objectives p. 913
Section 1101 of the Omnibus Trade and Competitive Act of 1988 p. 913
Section 1124 and 3004 of the Omnibus Trade and Competitiveness Act of 1988 p. 918
Sections 131, 132, 135, and 315 of the Uruguay Round Agreements Act, as amended
p. 919
Section 409 of the Trade and Development Act of 2000 p. 922
Section 108 of the North American Free Trade Agreement Implementation Act p. 924
B. General trade agreement and implementation authorities p. 926
1. “Fast track” authority (expired) (sections 1102, 1102, 1105, and 1107 of the Omnibus Trade and Competitiveness Act of 1988, as amended) p. 926
2. Uruguay Round/WTO implementation, tariff modifications and dispute settlement (sections 101(a), 102, 111(a, c, and e), and 121-130 of the Uruguay Round Agreements Act p. 935
C. Specific trade agreement authorities p. 951
  1. Compensation authority (section 123 of the Trade Act of 1974, as amended)
p. 951
2. Termination and withdrawal authority (section 125 of the Trade Act of 1974) p. 952
3. Accession of State trading regimes to the GATT or the WTO (section 1106 of the Omnibus Trade and Competitiveness Act of 1988, as amended) p. 954
  4. GATT and WTO authorizations p. 955
  Section 121 of the Trade Act of 1974, as amended p. 955
  Section 101(c) of the Uruguay Round Agreements Act p. 956
D. Trade negotiation procedural requirements p. 956
Sections 131-134 of the Trade Act of 1974, as amended p. 955
Sections 127(a) and (b) of the Trade Act of 1974, as amended p. 959
E. Identification of, and action on, specific foreign trade barriers p. 959
1. National trade estimates report (section 182 of the Trade Act of 1974, as amended) p. 961
2. Intellectual property rights (section 182 of the Trade Act of 1974, as amended) p. 961
3. Telecommunications trade (Telecommunications Trade Act of 1988) p. 965
F. Normal Trade Relations (nondiscriminatory) treatment p. 974
  1. NTR principle p. 974
Section 5003 of Public Law 105-206: Clarification of Designation of Normal Trade Relations p. 974
Section 251 of the Trade Expansion Act of 1962 p. 975
Section 126(a) of the Trade Act of 1974 p. 975
  Section 1103(a)(3) of the Omnibus Trade and Competitiveness Act of 1988 p. 975
  2. Trade relations with nonmarket economy countries p. 976
  General note 3(b) of the Harmonized Tariff Schedule p. 976
Title IV of the Trade Act of 1974, as amended p. 976
Sections 1 and 2 of Public Law 102-182 (NTR treatment for Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania) p. 983
Section 1 of Public Law 102-420 (NTR withdrawal from Serbia and Montenegro) p. 985
Public Law 104-162 p. 985
Public Law 104-171 p. 986
Public Law 104-203 p. 987
Section 2424 of Public Law 106-36 p. 988
Sections 301-302 of Public Law 106-200 p. 989
Public Law 106-286 p. 990
Sections 3001-3002 of Public Law 106-200 p. 989
Public Law 106-286 p. 990
Sections 3001-3002 of Public Law 106-476: Extension of Non-discriminatory Treatment to Georgia p. 1006
G. Trade relations with North America (North American Free Trade Agreement Implementation Act, as amended) p. 1007
H. Bilateral trade relations with Israel p. 1071
Section 102(b)(1) of the Trade Act of 1974, as amended p. 1071
Title IV of the Trade and Tariff Act of 1984, as amended p. 1072
United States-Israel Free Trade Area Implementation Act of 1985, as amended p. 1075
I. Bilateral trade relations with Canada p. 1081
United States-Canada Free-Trade Agreement Implementation Act of 1988, as amended p. 1081
Automotive Products Trade Act of 1965, as amended p. 1107
General note 5 of the Harmonized Tariff Schedule p. 1116
Chapter 14: Organization of trade policy functions p. 1119
A. Congress p. 1119
  1. Congressional advisers (section 161 of the Trade Act of 1974, as amended) p. 1119
  2. Reports to Congress p. 1121
  Sections 162 and 163 of the Trade Act of 1974, as amended p. 1121
  Section 2202 of the Omnibus Trade and Competitiveness Act of 1988 p. 1124
3. Congressional fast track procedures with respect to presidential actions (sections 151-154 of the Trade Act of 1974, as amended) p. 1125
  4. Trade agreement implementation authority and amendment procedures p. 1133
  Sections 111(b) and 115 of the Uruguay Round Agreements Act p. 1133
Sections 103 and 104 of the North American Free Trade Agreement Implementation Act p. 1134
  Sections 2(a) and 3(c) of the Trade Agreements Act of 1979 p. 1135
B. Executive branch p. 1137
  1. Interagency trade organization p. 1137
   Section 242 of the Trade Expansion Act of 1962, as amended p. 1137
   Reorganization Plan No. 3 of 1979 p. 1138
   Section 306 of the Trade and Tariff Act of 1984 p. 1142
2. Office of the United States Trade Representative (section 141 of the Trade Act of 1974, as amended) p. 1144
C. United States International Trade Commission p. 1149
  1. Organization, general powers, procedures p. 1149
  Sections 330, 331, 333-335, and 339 of the Tariff Act of 1930, as amended p. 1149
  Section 603 of the Trade Act of 1974 p. 1156
Section 175(a)(1) of the Trade Act of 1974 p. 1157
2. Investigations (section 443 of the Tariff Act of 1930, as amended) p. 1157
D. Private or public sector advisory committees (section 135 of the Trade Act of 1974, as amended) p. 1159

APPENDIX:

Descriptions of major regional and multilateral trade organizations p. 1165
World Trade Organization (WTO) p. 1165
Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) p. 1166
United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD) p. 1166
World Customs Organization p. 1167
European Union (EU) p. 1167
Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) p. 1167
MERCOSUR p. 1168
Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) p. 1168
Cairns Group p. 1169

Audience

Political science and economics students, professors, and researchers will find this document useful, as well lawyers law librarians and law students.  In addition, anyone with an interest in United States import and export history will find this a thorough and interesting document.

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Key Phrases:
  • Trade Regulations
  • Law and Legislation
  • International Trade
  • Commercial Law
  • Government and Business
  • Foreign Trade
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