NIOSH Criteria for a Recommended Standard: Occupational Exposure to Heat and Hot Environments, Revised Criteria 2016

NIOSH Criteria for a Recommended Standard: Occupational Exposure to Heat and Hot Environments, Revised Criteria 2016
Title:
Criteria for a Recommended Standard: Occupational Exposure to Heat and Hot Environments, Revised Criteria 2016
Format:
Paperback
USA Price: 
Stock:
In stock
GPO Stock Number:
017-024-01709-4
ISBN:
9780160946561
Description

Criteria for a Recommended Standard: Occupational Exposure to Hot Environments, was prepared in 1972 and first revised in 1986. The revision presented here takes into account the large amount of new scientific information on working in heat and hot environments. This revision includes updated information on heat-related illnesses, risk factors affecting heat-related illness, physiological responses to heat, effects of clothing on heat exchange, and recommendations for control and prevention. Occupational exposure to heat can result in injuries, disease, death, and reduced productivity. Workers may be at risk for heat stress when exposed to hot environments. Exposure to hot environments and extreme heat can result in illnesses, including heat stroke, heat exhaustion, heat syncope, heat cramps, and heat rashes, or death. Heat also increases the risk of workplace injuries, such as those caused by sweaty palms, fogged-up safety glasses, and dizziness.

Table of Contents

Foreword iii

Executive Summary v

Abbreviations xv

Glossary  xix

Symbols xxv

Acknowledgments xxix 1

Recommendations for an Occupational Standard for Workers Exposed to Heat and Hot Environments 1 1.1

Workplace Limits and Surveillance 2 1.1.1

Recommended Limits  2 1.1.2

Determination of Environmental Heat 2 1.1.3

Determination of Metabolic Heat 3 1.1.4

Physiologic Monitoring 4 1.2

Medical Monitoring 4 1.2.1

General 4 1.2.2

Preplacement Medical Evaluations  5 1.2.3

Periodic Medical Evaluations 5 1.2.4

Emergency Medical Care 5 1.2.5

Information to Be Provided to the Responsible Healthcare Provider 5 1.2.6

Responsible Healthcare Provider’s Written Report of Medical Findings 6 1.3

Surveillance of Heat-related Sentinel Health Events 6 1.3.1

Definition 6 1.3.2 Requirements 6 1.4

Posting of Hazardous Areas 6 1.4.1

Dangerous Heat Stress Areas 6 1.4.2

Emergency Situations  7 1.4.3

Additional Requirements for Warning Signs 7 1.5

Protective Clothing and Equipment  7 1.6

Worker Information and Training 7 1.6.1

Information Requirements 7 1.6.2

Training Programs 8 1.6.3

Heat Stress Safety Data Sheet 8 1.7

Control of Heat Stress 8 1.7.1

General Requirements  8 1.7.2

Engineering Controls  8 1.7.3

Work and Hygienic Practices  9 1.7.4

Heat Alert Program 10

Contents x Occupational Exposure to Heat and Hot Environments 1.8

Recordkeeping 10 1.8.1

Environmental and Metabolic Heat Surveillance 10 1.8.2

Medical Surveillance 10 1.8.3

Surveillance of Heat-related Sentinel Health Events 10 1.8.4

Heat-related Illness Surveillance  10 1.8.5

Heat Stress Tolerance Augmentation 10 2

Introduction  11 3

Heat Balance and Heat Exchange 13 3.1

Heat Balance Equation  13 3.2

Modes of Heat Exchange 13 3.2.1

Convection (C) 14 3.2.2 Radiation (R)  14 3.2.3

Evaporation (E)  14 3.2.4 Conduction (K) 15 3.3

Effects of Clothing on Heat Exchange 15 3.3.1

Clothing Insulation and Non-evaporative Heat loss 16 3.3.2

Clothing Permeability and Evaporative Heat Loss 18 3.3.3

Physiologic Problems of Clothing 19 4

Biologic Effects of Heat  23 4.1

Physiologic Responses to Heat  23 4.1.1

The Central Nervous System 23 4.1.2

Muscular Activity and Work Capacity 24 4.1.3

Circulatory Regulation 26 4.1.4

The Sweating Mechanism 27 4.1.5

Acclimatization to Heat  31 4.1.6

Other Related Factors .33 4.1.7

Heat-Related Illnesses and Work  40 4.2

Acute Heat Disorders 47 4.2.1

Heat Stroke  47 4.2.2

Heat Exhaustion 56 4.2.3

Heat Cramps 56 4.2.4

Heat Syncope 57 4.2.5

Heat Rashes 57 4.3

Chronic Heat Disorders 57 5

Measurement of Heat Stress 59 5.1

Environmental Factors    59 5.1.1

Air (Dry Bulb) Temperature 9 5.1.2

Humidity 61 5.1.3

Air Velocity 62 5.1.4

Heat Radiation 63

Contents Occupational Exposure to Heat and Hot Environments xi 5.1.5

Psychrometric Chart  65 5.2

Prediction of Meteorological Factors from the National Weather Service Data 65 5.3

Metabolic Heat 67 5.3.1

Measurements of Metabolic Heat 67 5.3.2

Estimation of Metabolic Heat 68 6

Control of Heat Stress  71 6.1

Engineering Controls  .  71 6.1.1

Convective Heat Control 71 6.1.2

Radiant Heat Control 71 6.1.3

Evaporative Heat Control 74 6.2

Administrative Controls 74 6.2.1

Limiting Exposure Timeand/or Temperature 75 6.2.2

Reducing Metabolic Heat Load 75 6.2.3

Enhancing Tolerance to Heat 78 6.2.4

Health and Safety Training 78 6.2.5

Screening for Heat Intolerance 79 6.2.6

Heat Alert Program 80 6.3

Personal Protective Clothing and Auxiliary Body Cooling  82 6.3.1

Water-cooled Garments .83 6.3.2

Air-cooled Garments . . . . . . . .  83 6.3.3

Cooling Vests  83 6.3.4.

Wetted Overgarments 84 6.3.5

Practical Applicationsand Limitations 84 6.3.6

Performance Degradation 85 7

Medical Monitoring  87 7.1

Worker Participation 87 7.2

Program Oversight 87 7.3

Medical Monitoring Program Elements 87 7.3.1

Medical Evaluations 88 7.4

Medical Surveillance—Periodic Evaluation of Data  91 7.5

Employer Actions 91 7.6

Considerations Regarding Reproduction  91 7.6.1

Pregnancy   91 7.6.2

Fertility .91 7.6.3

Teratogenicity 92 8

Basis for the Recommended Standard 93 8.1

The NIOSH RALs and RELs 93 8.2

Estimation of Risks 97 8.3

Correlation between Exposure and Effects  98 8.4

Physiologic Monitoring of Heat Strain  99 8.5

Recommendations of U.S. Organizations and Agencies 100

Contents xii Occupational Exposure to Heat and Hot Environments 8.5.1

The American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) 100 8.5.2

Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) 101 8.5.3

American Industrial Hygiene Association (AIHA) 103 8.5.4

The Armed Services 103 8.5.5

American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM)   103 8.5.6

Washington State Department of Labor and Industries 104 8.5.7

Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) 105 8.6

International and Foreign Standards and Recommendations 106 8.6.1

The International Organization for Standardization (ISO)  106 8.6.2

Canada . .  07 8.6.3 Japan 107 9

Indices for Assessing Heat Stress and Strain 109 9.1

Direct Indices 109 9.1.1

Dry Bulb Temperature 109 9.1.2

Wet Bulb Temperature 110 9.2

Rational Indices 110 9.2.1

Operative Temperature .110 9.2.2

Belding-Hatch Heat Stress Index   110 9.2.3

Skin Wettedness (% SWA) 111 9.3

Empirical Indices  111 9.3.1

The Effective Temperature (ET, CET, ET*, and P4SR) 112 9.3.2

The Wet Bulb Globe Temperature (WBGT) 113 9.3.3

Wet Globe Temperature (WGT)  114 9.3.4

Universal Thermal Climate Index (UTCI)  115 9.3.5

Psychrometric Chart   115 9.4

Physiologic Monitoring 115 9.4.1

Work and Recovery Heart Rate  116 9.4.2

Body Temperature  116 9.4.3

Dehydration 118 10 Research Needs 125 10.1

Exposure Times and Patterns  125 10.2

Deep Body Temperature 125 10.3

Electrolyte and Water Balance 126 10.4

Effects of Chronic Heat Exposure 126 10.5

Circadian Rhythm of Heat Tolerance 126 10.6

Heat Tolerance and Shift Work 127 10.7

Detection, Treatment, and Prevention of Heat-related Illnesses 127 10.8

The Effects of Global Climate Change 127 10.9

Heat Stress and Toxicology 128 10.10

Other Research Needs 130 References  . . . . . . 131

Contents Occupational Exposure to Heat and Hot Environments xiii

Appendices 145

A: Heat Exchange Equation Utilizing the SI Units 145

B: Urine Chart 153

C: Heat Index 

Audience

Federal employees and members of the general public. the elderly and ill.

Product Details

Availability Details:
In Stock
USA Price:
$38.00
International Price:
$53.20
Publisher:
Health and Human Services Dept., Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health
Author:
  • Jacklitsch, Brenda
Key Phrases:
  • DHHS Publication NIOSH 2016 106
  • Heat
  • Hot Environments
Weight:
1.4375
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Cover:
Plastic Coated
Unit of Issue (US):
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Unit of Issue (Non-US):
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Record Creation Date:
06/28/2018
Last Status Update:
04/10/2019
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