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Leading The Way: The History of Air Force Civil Engineers, 1907-2012

Title:
Leading The Way: The History of Air Force Civil Engineers, 1907-2012
Format:
Paperback
USA Price: 
Stock:
Low stock
GPO Stock Number:
008-000-01089-7
ISBN:
9780160925344
Description

The Civil Engineering story goes back to the early days of military aviation and is detailed in this comprehensive history of the career field.  In reality, civil engineers are a combination of career fields such as carpenters, electricians, firefighters, explosive ordnance disposal technicians, architects, community planners, and "dirt boyz".  They use colorful names such as Prime BEEF and RED HORSE to describe wartime capabilities.

Using hundreds of documents, articles, books, reports, and interviews, the authors thoroughly researched the topics to weave together the untold peacetime and wartime history of Air Force civil engineers at all levees, from the Air Staff to the base-level flights.   Featuring more than 200 illustrations and dozens of short, complementary topics, this is more than an organizational history.  It tells the story of the hundreds of thousands of engineers who have supported airpower since 1907.

The book conveys how engineers provided hundreds of bases during World War II, Korea, Vietnam, the Gulf War, and Operations ENDURING FREEDOM, and IRAQI FREEDOM while still operating and maintaining a global network of enduring, peacetime bases. This authoritative volume describes the engineers' role in the ballistic missile program and the Arctiv early warning sites and chronicles how engineers planned, designed, and oversaw the construction of thousands of homes for military families around the world. This is the story of how civil engineers have been organized, trained, equipped ,and employed for more than 100 years.

Engineers take great pride in their work and their ability to get the job done.  This Proud Heritage is reflected in their story recounted in Leading the Way.

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Table of Contents

Table of Contents:

FOREWORD.................................................................................................................................. xxiii

PREFACE.........................................................................................................................................xxv

CHAPTER 1 BUILDING THE FOUNDATION, 1907-1947..........................................................1

The Army Takes Wing ..............................................................................................................1

Support for the Training Mission..............................................................................................3

Early Airfield Sites....................................................................................................................4

Facilities for the First Operational Units ..................................................................................4

Establishing Infrastructure for World War I..............................................................................6

The United States Enters the War.............................................................................................7

Oversight of the Construction Program....................................................................................7

Construction on the Home Front ..............................................................................................8

The Role of Military Engineers................................................................................................9

Engineers “Over There”..........................................................................................................10

Spin-Offs of the War...............................................................................................................12

Dreams Versus Reality............................................................................................................12

Army Reorganization Act of 1920..........................................................................................13

Air Installations in the Early 1920s ........................................................................................14

Support to Civil Aviation ........................................................................................................14

The Air Corps Act of 1926......................................................................................................15

The Air Corps Expansion Program.........................................................................................15

Heart of the Depression ..........................................................................................................18

General Headquarters Air Force Emphasis on National Defense...........................................19

The Life of a Post Engineer with the Air Corps .....................................................................21

Building for War......................................................................................................................21

Stateside Training Bases............................................................................................23

Aviation Engineers in World War II........................................................................................26

Alaska ........................................................................................................................30

Panama.......................................................................................................................32

Atlantic and Caribbean Bases....................................................................................33

Hawaii and the Pacific ...............................................................................................34

England......................................................................................................................35

North Africa ...............................................................................................................37

Sicily, Italy, and Southern France ..............................................................................39

Normandy to V-E Day ...............................................................................................42

Pearl Harbor and the Early War in the Pacific ...........................................................51

North Pacific ..............................................................................................................51

Australia.....................................................................................................................53

South Pacific ..............................................................................................................54

Southwest Pacific.......................................................................................................55

Central Pacific............................................................................................................58

Philippines .................................................................................................................65

China-Burma-India ....................................................................................................68

Iwo Jima and Okinawa ..............................................................................................75

The War’s End ...........................................................................................................76

Occupation Forces.....................................................................................................76

Lessons Learned from World War II.......................................................................................78

Setting Sights on an Independent Air Force ...........................................................................82

CHAPTER 2 ESTABLISHING INDEPENDENCe, 1947-1959....................................................84

Introduction.............................................................................................................................84

The New Air Force .................................................................................................................85

Air Staff Organization 1945-1947 .............................................................................85

Establishment of an Independent Air Force, 1947-1951 ...........................................86

Directorate of Installations at Air Force Headquarters.................................87

Programming ................................................................................................92

Beginnings of a Professional Development Program...................................95

Building the Permanent Bases................................................................................................98

Air Force Installations Representatives.....................................................................99

Construction Programs ............................................................................................101

Special Projects........................................................................................................105

Wherry and Capehart Family Housing Programs.......................................105

Radar and Communications Facilities........................................................108

Aircraft Control and Warning (AC&W) Sites...............................109

Distant Early Warning (DEW) Line ..............................................110

DYE Stations.................................................................................113

Texas Towers.................................................................................114

Ballistic Missile Early Warning System (BMEWS)......................117

Into the Missile Age.................................................................................................118

BOMARC...................................................................................................120

Intercontinental Ballistic Missile and Intermediate Range

 Missile Programs......................................................................................121

Construction of Missile Testing Facilities.....................................122

Thor ...............................................................................................125

Atlas and Titan...............................................................................126

Minuteman.....................................................................................130

Construction of the U.S. Air Force Academy.............................................131

Overseas Construction.............................................................................................136

Managing the Bases..............................................................................................................138

Air Installation Officer Responsibilities..................................................................139

Air Installation Organization and Staffing...............................................................140

Maintenance and Repair ..........................................................................................144

Real Property Inventory and Master Planning.........................................................146

Fire Protection .........................................................................................................147

Utilities ....................................................................................................................151

Base Recovery .........................................................................................................152

Early Community Relations ....................................................................................152

Education and Training.........................................................................................................153

Air Force Institute of Technology (AFIT)...............................................................153

Department of Civil Engineering Training, Sheppard Air Force Base, Texas.........155

Fire Training ............................................................................................................155

The Issue of Troop Construction ..........................................................................................155

The Korean Conflict ................................................................................................159

Aviation Engineer Force (AEF)...............................................................................167

The End of SCARWAF............................................................................................170

Lebanon Crisis.........................................................................................................172

The End of the 1950s............................................................................................................174

CHAPTER 3 RISING TO THE CHALLENGE, 1960-1974........................................................176

Introduction...........................................................................................................................176

Civil Engineering Air Staff Programs and Policies..............................................................177

Directors of Civil Engineering.................................................................................177

Organizational Changes, 1960-1974........................................................................182

Air Staff ......................................................................................................182

Major Command Civil Engineering Directorates.......................................186

The Continued Drive for Professional Development ..............................................187

The Engineer-Manager ............................................................................................190

Personnel Allocations and Project Prime BEEF......................................................195

Palace Blueprint..........................................................................................201

Concrete Youth Program.............................................................................201

Officer Exchange Program .........................................................................202

Personnel Firsts...........................................................................................202

The Civil Engineering Center..................................................................................204

Air National Guard and Air Force Reserve .............................................................211

Managing the Permanent Air Force Bases............................................................................213

Introduction..............................................................................................................213

Reorganization of the Base Civil Engineer Organization and

 Work Control Center..............................................................................................214

Supplies....................................................................................................................218

Fire Protection..........................................................................................................219

Cost Reductions.......................................................................................................221

Automation...............................................................................................................221

Environmental Planning ..........................................................................................223

Air Installation Compatible Use Zone (AICUZ)........................................227

Energy Programs......................................................................................................228

Construction..........................................................................................................................229

Design and Construction Management....................................................................230

Two-Step Procurement ...............................................................................231

Industrialized Construction.........................................................................232

One-Step Turnkey Procedures....................................................................232

CONUS Construction: Major Command Programs................................................233

Air Force Systems Command and the Missile Program 1960-1974 ..........233

Military Airlift Command (MAC) Terminals.............................................236

Air Force Logistics Command (AFLC) Depot Modernization ..................236

Temporary Living Quarters ........................................................................237

CONUS Special Projects.........................................................................................238

Design of the Aeropropulsion Systems Test Facility at the Arnold

 Engineering Development Center.............................................................238

Cheyenne Mountain....................................................................................239

Construction of U.S. Air Force Museum....................................................240

Overseas Construction at Permanent Bases.............................................................242

Collocated Operating Bases (COBs)..........................................................242

TABVEE Program......................................................................................242

Ice Way Runways at Thule .........................................................................242

Education and Training.........................................................................................................246

Air Force Institute of Technology (AFIT)...............................................................246

U.S. Air Force Academy..........................................................................................248

Department of Civil Engineering Training, Sheppard Air Force Base, Texas.........249

Fire School...............................................................................................................249

The Professional Degree Program...........................................................................250

Base Civil Engineering In-House Training Program...............................................250

Civilian Education ...................................................................................................250

Civil Engineer Wartime Readiness and Deployments..........................................................250

Berlin Wall Crisis, 1961...........................................................................................251

Cuban Missile Crisis, 1962......................................................................................252

Dominican Republic Crisis, 1965-1966 ..................................................................253

Vietnam Conflict, 1961-1973...................................................................................254

Overview of Conflict, 1961-1968...............................................................254

Organization of Air Force Civil Engineers in South Vietnam....................256

Prime BEEF................................................................................................260

The Establishment of RED HORSE...........................................................265

Engineering Construction in South Vietnam..............................................275

Beddown.....................................................................................................276

Operational Support....................................................................................278

Utilities .......................................................................................................279

Force Protection..........................................................................................279

Firefighting .................................................................................................282

New Air Bases............................................................................................282

Project Turnkey: Tuy Hoa...........................................................................283

U.S.S. Pueblo Crisis and Buildup of Forces in South Korea, 1968.........................289

Drawdown from Southeast Asia ..............................................................................291

Humanitarian ...........................................................................................................294

Civic Action Programs................................................................................294

Vietnamese Refugees..................................................................................296

Emergency and Disaster Response ..........................................................................297

Challenges Ahead ....................................................................................................300

CHAPTER 4 BUILDING ON SUCCESS, 1975-1990 ..................................................................302

Introduction...........................................................................................................................302

Civil Engineering Air Staff Programs and Policies..............................................................304

Directors of Engineering and Services....................................................................304

Civil Engineer Structural Reorganizations..............................................................309

Merger of Civil Engineering and Services .................................................310

1978 Reorganization and the Establishment of AFESC.............................314

Engineering and Services Laboratory.........................................................320

Air Staff Reorganization in the Late 1980s................................................324

Programming Budgets and Cost Programs 1975-1990 ...........................................325

Cost Programs.............................................................................................328

Wartime Manpower Studies during the 1970s.........................................................329

Quality of Life Programs.........................................................................................332

Project Image ...........................................................................................................333

Architectural Design Excellence .............................................................................334

Joint Program Participation .....................................................................................336

Managing the Peacetime Bases.............................................................................................338

Introduction..............................................................................................................338

Advances in Automation ............................................................................341

Work Information Management System (WIMS)......................................343

Services Information Management System (SIMS)...................................344

Cost Containment: Contracting, Consolidation, and Early Privatization...346

San Antonio Real Property Maintenance Agency ......................................347

Base Closure ...............................................................................................350

Zonal Maintenance .....................................................................................350

Energy and Environmental Planning..........................................................353

Construction................................................................................................................357

Introduction..............................................................................................................357

CONUS Construction ..............................................................................................357

CONUS Construction – Special Projects ................................................................358

Missile-X Construction Support.................................................................359

Vandenberg Space Launch Complex..........................................................362

Project Touchdown .....................................................................................364

Air-Launched Cruise Missile......................................................................365

Construction of the Aeropropulsion Systems Test Facility at

 Arnold Engineering Development Center ................................................366

Consolidated Space Operations Center ......................................................367

Construction in Alaska................................................................................368

Arctic Renewal ...........................................................................................369

Overseas Construction.............................................................................................369

Israeli Base Construction............................................................................369

Foreign Military Sales................................................................................371

Southwest Asia Basing and NATO.............................................................372

Ground-Launched Cruise Missiles.............................................................373

USAFE Readiness Initiatives .....................................................................374

Education and Training.........................................................................................................375

Professional Development.......................................................................................375

AFIT Short Course Program.......................................................................375

Facilities Management Program.................................................................375

Education with Industry..............................................................................376

PhDs............................................................................................................377

Civilian Career Program.............................................................................377

Technical Training ......................................................................................379

Fire School..................................................................................................379

Readiness.................................................................................................................380

Contingency Forces and Training (Prime BEEF, RED HORSE,

 Prime RIBS) .............................................................................................380

Guard and Reserve......................................................................................385

Jack Frost 79...............................................................................................387

Salty Demo .................................................................................................388

Readiness Challenges.................................................................................390

Deployments............................................................................................................391

Bright Star...................................................................................................391

Proud Phantom ...........................................................................................392

Team Spirit..................................................................................................393

Civic Action Programs and Disaster Response ..........................................394

 Civic Action Programs....................................................................394

 Disaster Response...........................................................................394

The End of the Cold War ......................................................................................................397

ChAPTER 5 RESPONDING TO NEW CHALLENGES, 1991-2000 ........................................400

Introduction...........................................................................................................................400

Civil Engineering Air Staff Programs and Policies..............................................................402

The Civil Engineers.................................................................................................402

Civil Engineering Structural Reorganizations.........................................................406

Defense Management Report Decision 967 ...............................................406

Reorganizations by General McPeak..........................................................408

Objective Squadron ....................................................................................413

Major Command Reorganizations..............................................................414

R&D/Laboratory Transfer ..........................................................................415

Effects of Reorganization on the Civil Engineer Office .............................415

Civilian Reduction in Force........................................................................416

Air Staff Reorganizations 1994-2000.........................................................417

Wartime Manpower Requirements..........................................................................418

Air National Guard and Air Force Reserve .............................................................420

Doctrine Development.............................................................................................421

Civil Engineer Strategic Plan, 1999-2000 ...............................................................424

AFCESA During the 1990s .....................................................................................426

AFCESA Reorganization............................................................................426

Explosive Ordnance Disposal (EOD)............................................428

Disaster Preparedness....................................................................429

CEMIRT ........................................................................................429

BASH.............................................................................................430

Cost Estimating Programs.............................................................431

AFCESA from 1994-2000 ..........................................................................431

Development and Use of AFCAP...............................................................433

AFCEE – Its Establishment and Development........................................................435

Managing the Peacetime Bases.............................................................................................442

Introduction..............................................................................................................442

Civil Engineer Objective Squadron Reorganization................................................443

Multi-Skilling .............................................................................................443

Zonal Maintenance .....................................................................................445

Emergency Services.................................................................................................446

Fire Protection ............................................................................................446

Disaster Preparedness.................................................................................448

Force Protection..........................................................................................449

Facilities Management.............................................................................................449

Commanders Facility Assessments ............................................................449

Air Mobility Command’s Facility Excellence Program.............................450

Demolition of Excess Structures ................................................................450

Environmental Programs.........................................................................................450

Energy Programs......................................................................................................453

Advances in Automation..........................................................................................453

Outsourcing and Privatization .................................................................................455

Outsourcing and the A-76 Process..............................................................455

Privatization................................................................................................456

Housing Privatization ....................................................................456

Utilities Privatization.....................................................................457

Base Closures - United States and Overseas ...........................................................458

Construction Programs .........................................................................................................460

CONUS Construction ..............................................................................................460

Housing and Dormitories............................................................................460

Special Projects: Space and Missile Program Support...............................461

The Eastern Range and the 45th Civil Engineer Squadron ...........461

Vandenberg Air Force Base, California.........................................462

B-2 Beddown at Whiteman AFB...................................................463

Overseas Construction.............................................................................................463

Education and Training.........................................................................................................465

Education .................................................................................................................466

AFIT ...........................................................................................................466

Graduate Educational Opportunities...........................................................469

U.S. Air Force Academy Civil Engineer Program......................................469

Technical Training ...................................................................................................470

363d Technical Training Squadron.............................................................471

Fire School..................................................................................................472

EOD Training .............................................................................................472

Readiness Training...................................................................................................472

Silver Flag and Move to Tyndall AFB........................................................472

Foal Eagle Exercises...................................................................................474

Exercise Green Flag 95...............................................................................475

Engineer Capstone Exercise 96 ..................................................................475

Readiness Challenges.................................................................................476

Deployments.........................................................................................................................479

Introduction..............................................................................................................479

Operations Desert Shield/Desert Storm ................................................................479

Civil Engineers Deployed in the Gulf War.................................................482

Operation Provide Comfort .......................................................................496

Operation Pacific Haven.............................................................................498

Other Military Deployments....................................................................................499

Khobar Towers, Saudi Arabia.....................................................................499

Military Operations Other Than War.......................................................................500

Somalia .......................................................................................................501

Haiti ............................................................................................................502

Balkans and Kosovo ...................................................................................503

Expeditionary Aerospace Force (EAF)....................................................................510

Civic Action and Training Mootw ...........................................................................512

Civic Action Teams.....................................................................................513

Deployments for Training...........................................................................513

New Horizons or “Nuevos Horizontes” ........................................513

Cornerstone 2000...........................................................................515

Disaster Response....................................................................................................515

International................................................................................................516

CONUS and Overseas U.S. Air Force Air Bases .......................................516

Hurricane Andrew..........................................................................516

Typhoon Omar...............................................................................517

Tropical Storm Alberto 1994.........................................................517

Great Plains Flood 1997 ................................................................517

Hurricane Seasons 1998-1999.......................................................518

Pacific Typhoon Season 1998-1999...............................................518

Summary...............................................................................................................................518

CHAPTER 6 MEETING THE NEW CENTURY, 2001-2012 .....................................................520

Introduction...........................................................................................................................520

Civil Engineering Staff Programs and Policies ....................................................................523

 The Civil Engineers.................................................................................................523

 Department of Defense and Air Force Transformation ...........................................529

 Civil Engineering Transformation ...........................................................................530

 Major Command and Air Staff Reorganizations........................................530

Personnel Evolution....................................................................................532

 Program Budget Decision (PBD) 720 ........................................................534

 Process Evaluation......................................................................................535

 Civil Engineer Transformation Plan ...........................................................535

 Business Process Re-Engineering Initiatives .............................................537

 Civil Engineer Transformation: 20/20 By 2020 .........................................541

Civil Engineer Strategic Plans.................................................................................541

 AFCESA Developments 2001-2011........................................................................542

Airfield Pavement Evaluation Team...........................................................545

Airfield Damage Repair..............................................................................547

 CEMIRT .....................................................................................................547

 Growth of Air Force Contract Augmentation Program (AFCAP)..............548

 Air Force Center for Environmental Excellence (AFCEE).....................................551

AFCEE’s Role in Iraqi Reconstruction ......................................................552

Housing Programs ......................................................................................555

Design Programs.........................................................................................557

AFCEE’s Environmental Programs............................................................557

Changes at AFCEE .....................................................................................559

 Air Force Real Property Agency (AFRPA) .............................................................560

 Air Reserve Component (ARC) and the Total Force...............................................563

Managing the Permanent Bases............................................................................................565

 Introduction..............................................................................................................565

 Back To Bases Initiative ..........................................................................................566

 Transforming the Base Civil Engineer Squadron (CES).........................................566

 Facilities Management Strategies............................................................................568

 Asset Management .....................................................................................568

 Activity Management Plans........................................................................568

 Space Utilization and Optimization............................................................569

 Facilities Demolition ..................................................................................570

 Fire Emergency Services.........................................................................................570

 Force Protection.......................................................................................................572

 Disaster Preparedness Program ...............................................................................573

Airfield Obstructions Initiative ................................................................................573

 EOD .........................................................................................................................573

 Environmental Programs.........................................................................................574

 Energy and Water Conservation Programs..............................................................575

 Automation ..............................................................................................................579

 ACES..........................................................................................................579

Agile Installation Management and Next Generation

 Information Technology (NexGen IT)......................................................579

 Air Force GeoBase .....................................................................................581

 A-76 Process............................................................................................................584

 Privatization Initiatives............................................................................................585

Base Realignment and Closure (BRAC) and Joint Basing......................................585

 Overseas Closures.......................................................................................587

Construction..........................................................................................................................588

 CONUS Construction ..............................................................................................588

 Overseas Construction.............................................................................................589

 USAFE........................................................................................................589

 PACAF........................................................................................................592

Education and Training.........................................................................................................592

 Education .................................................................................................................593

 AFIT ...........................................................................................................593

 United States Air Force Academy (USAFA)..............................................595

 Training....................................................................................................................596

 Utility Systems Training.............................................................................597

 Silver Flag Exercise Site.............................................................................597

 Readiness Challenges.................................................................................597

 Air Education and Training Command, 366th Training Squadron, Det 7..598

 Eagle Flag ...................................................................................................599

 RED HORSE Troop Training.....................................................................600

 EOD Training .............................................................................................600

 Air Reserve Component (ARC) Training...................................................601

Deployments.........................................................................................................................601

 Introduction..............................................................................................................601

 Aerospace Expeditionary Force (AEF) Personnel Deployment Challenges...........602

 Contingency Deployments.......................................................................................604

 Post-September 11, 2001 - The Immediate Aftermath ...............................605

 Operation Noble Eagle ..............................................................................606

 Operation Enduring Freedom.....................................................................606

 Sustainment and Reconstruction in Afghanistan...........................615

 Operation Iraqi Freedom ............................................................................618

 Setting the Stage for Operation Iraqi Freedom .............................618

 Operation Iraqi Freedom Begins...................................................621

 In Lieu Of Taskings ......................................................................624

 RED HORSE in Iraq .....................................................................627

 Explosive Ordnance Disposal (EOD) Personnel ..........................630

 Iraqi Military Progress and U.S. Drawdown .................................632

 Contingency Innovations ..............................................................635

 Other Military Deployments....................................................................................638

 Humanitarian and Training Deployments................................................................640

 Combined Joint Task Force-Horn Of Africa...............................................640

 Civic Action Teams.....................................................................................641

 Deployment for Training ............................................................................642

 Nuevos Horizontes/New Horizons................................................642

 Innovative Readiness Training (IRT) Program..............................644

 Exercise Tropical Hammer............................................................644

 Base-To-Base Deployments ..........................................................644

Other Humanitarian Deployments and Responses.....................................645

 Disaster Response in the United States and at U.S. Air Force Bases......................647

Summary...............................................................................................................................651

EPILOGUE: FORGING THE FUTURE, 2012 AND BEYOND.................................................652

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS...............................................................................................................657

APPENDICES..................................................................................................................................659

A. Air Force Civil Engineer Leaders ................................................................................................659

B. Outstanding Civil Engineer Units (Maj. Gen. Robert H. Curtin Award Winners), 1966-2013 ...661

ACRONYMS....................................................................................................................................665

ENDNOTES......................................................................................................................................675

BIBLIOGRAPHY............................................................................................................................781

INDEX ..............................................................................................................................................797

Audience

This publication would be useful to new members of the military to train them to recognize the importance of military history to military leadership and strategy.  In addition, this publication would be beneficial to military leaders teaching new recruits, historians and students studying military history, and members of the general public interested in military history.

Product Details

Availability Details:
In Stock
USA Price:
$95.00
International Price:
$133.00
Publisher:
Defense Dept., Air Force
Author:
  • Hartzer, Ronald D.
Year/Pages:
2014: 840 p.; ill.
Key Phrases:
  • History of Air Force Civil Engineers, 1907-2012
  • Air Force History
  • Military History
  • Civil Engineering
Weight:
6.1875
Quantity Price:
Discount
Cover:
Paper
Unit of Issue (US):
1
Unit of Issue (Non-US):
1
Item available Date:
08/13/2014
Last Status Update:
06/30/2017
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