Guidelines for Design of Structures for Vertical Evacuation From Tsunamis, Third Edition

Guidelines for Design of Structures for Vertical Evacuation From Tsunamis, Third Edition
Title:
Guidelines for Design of Structures for Vertical Evacuation From Tsunamis, Third Edition
Format:
Paperback
USA Price: 
Stock:
In stock
GPO Stock Number:
027-002-00640-2
ISBN:
9780160953170
Table of Contents

Foreword ....................................................................................................... iii

Preface .............................................................................................................v

List of Figures ............................................................................................. xiii

List of Tables .............................................................................................. xix

1. Introduction ...................................................................................... 1-1

1.1 Objectives and Scope ............................................................... 1-1

1.2 Tsunami Refuge Versus Shelter ............................................... 1-3

1.3 Tsunami Hazard Versus Risk ................................................... 1-3

1.4 Reasons to Construct a Vertical Evacuation Refuge Structure ................................................................................... 1-4

1.5 Limitations ............................................................................... 1-4

1.6 Organization and Content ......................................................... 1-5

2. Background on Historic Tsunami Effects ...................................... 2-1

2.1 Categorization, Behavior, and Characteristics of Tsunamis ..... 2-1

2.1.1 Historic Tsunami Activity .............................................. 2-3

2.1.2 Behaviors and Characteristics of Tsunamis .................... 2-6

2.2 Tsunami Effects on Buildings ................................................ 2-11

2.2.1 Historic Data on Tsunami Effects ................................ 2-12

2.2.2 Observations from the 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami .... 2-15

2.2.3 Observations from the 2011 Tohoku Tsunami ............. 2-19

2.2.4 Observations from 2005 Hurricane Katrina ................. 2-27

2.2.5 Observations from 2012 Hurricane Sandy ................... 2-30

2.3 Implications for Tsunami-Resistant Design ........................... 2-31

3. Planning and Funding ...................................................................... 3-1

3.1 Tsunami Awareness and Preparation ....................................... 3-1

3.1.1 TsunamiReady Program ................................................. 3-1

3.2 Decision-Making Process ......................................................... 3-3

3.3 Making Tough Choices ............................................................ 3-6

3.3.1 Long-Term View ............................................................ 3-7 3.

3.2 Potential Liability ........................................................... 3-7

3.4 Quantifying Tsunami Hazard ................................................... 3-7

3.4.1 Considering Concurrent Hazards .................................... 3-8

3.5 Vulnerability and Risk Assessment .......................................... 3-9

3.6 Use of Evacuation Modeling .................................................. 3-10

3.7 Considering the Need for Vertical Evacuation ....................... 3-11

3.8 Cost Considerations for Vertical Evacuation Structures ........ 3-13

3.9 Potential Sources of Funding ................................................. 3-14

3.9.1 Federal Funds ............................................................... 3-15  

Table of Contents FEMA P-646 Third Edition

3.9.2 Public-Private Partnership ............................................ 3-16

3.9.3 Self-Funding ................................................................. 3-16

3.9.4 State and Local Revenue ............................................... 3-17

3.10 Planning for Vertical Evacuation Structures .......................... 3-17

3.10.1 Land Use Planning ...................................................... 3-18

3.11 Permitting and Quality Assurance for Vertical Evacuation Structures ................................................................................ 3-19

3.11.1 Permitting and Code Compliance................................ 3-19

3.11.2 Peer Review................................................................. 3-19

3.11.3 Quality Assurance / Quality Control ........................... 3-19

4. Options for Vertical Evacuation ..................................................... 4-1

4.1 Vertical Evacuation Considerations .......................................... 4-1

4.1.1 Single-Purpose Facilities ................................................ 4-1

4.1.2 Multi-Purpose Facilities .................................................. 4-2

4.1.3 Multi-Hazard Considerations .......................................... 4-3

4.2 Vertical Evacuation Concepts ................................................... 4-3

4.2.1 Existing High Ground ..................................................... 4-3

4.2.2 Soil Berms ....................................................................... 4-4

4.2.3 Multi-Story Parking Garages .......................................... 4-5

4.2.4 Community Facilities ...................................................... 4-6

4.2.5 Commercial and Residential Facilities ........................... 4-6

4.2.6 School Facilities .............................................................. 4-7

4.2.7 Existing Buildings ........................................................... 4-8

5. Siting, Spacing, Sizing, and Elevation Considerations .................. 5-1

5.1 Siting Considerations ................................................................ 5-1

5.1.1 Warning, Travel Time, and Spacing ............................... 5-1

5.1.2 Ingress and Vertical Circulation ..................................... 5-3

5.1.3 Consideration of Site Hazards ........................................ 5-4

5.2 Sizing Considerations ............................................................... 5-7

5.2.1 Services and Occupancy Duration .................................. 5-7

5.2.2 Square Footage Recommendations from Available Sheltering Guidelines ...................................................... 5-8

5.2.3 Recommended Minimum Square Footage for ShortTerm Vertical Evacuation Refuge Structures ................. 5-9

5.3 Elevation Considerations ........................................................ 5-10

5.4 Size of Vertical Evacuation Structures ................................... 5-11

6. Operation and Maintenance ............................................................ 6-1

6.1 Facility Operations Plan ........................................................... 6-1

6.2 Pre-Tsunami Public Education ................................................. 6-2

6.3 Tsunami Warnings .................................................................... 6-3

6.4 Opening the Vertical Evacuation Structure .............................. 6-4

6.5 Operating the Vertical Evacuation Structure ............................ 6-6

6.6 Leaving the Vertical Evacuation Structure ............................... 6-8

6.7 Maintenance .............................................................................. 6-9

6.8 Long-Term Issues ..................................................................... 6-9

7. Tsunami Hazard Assessment ........................................................... 7-1

7.1 Tsunami Modeling and Inundation Mapping ........................... 7-1

FEMA P-646 Table of Contents xi Third Edition

7.2 The NOAA Tsunami Program:

Forecast Modeling and Mapping ................................................................................... 7-2

7.3 Hazard Quantification for Design of Tsunami Vertical Evacuation Structures ............................................................... 7-4

7.4 ASCE Tsunami Design Geodatabase ....................................... 7-6

7.4.1 Development of Maximum Considered Tsunami Design Parameters .......................................................... 7-7

7.4.2 Probabilistic Tsunami Hazard Analysis .......................... 7-8

7.5 Recommendations for Improving Tsunami Hazard Assessment ............................................................................... 7-9

8. Load Determination and Structural Design Criteria .................... 8-1

8.1 Previously Available Structural Design Criteria ...................... 8-1

8.1.1 Guidelines, Codes, and Standards .................................. 8-2

8.1.2 Limitations in Previously Available Flood Design Criteria Relative to Tsunami Loading ............................ 8-4

8.2 ASCE/SEI 7-16 Tsunami Loads and Effects ............................ 8-5

8.2.1 Tsunami Risk Categories ................................................ 8-5

8.2.2 Determination of Design Inundation Depth and Flow Velocity .......................................................................... 8-6

8.2.3 Structural Design Procedures ......................................... 8-6

8.3 Performance Objectives ........................................................... 8-7

8.3.1 Tsunami Performance Objectives ................................... 8-8

8.4 Earthquake Loads ..................................................................... 8-9

8.4.1 Near-Source-Generated Tsunamis ................................ 8-10

8.4.2 Far-Source-Generated Tsunamis .................................. 8-11

8.5 Wind Loads ............................................................................ 8-11

8.6 Tsunami Loads ....................................................................... 8-11

8.6.1 Key Assumptions for Estimating Tsunami Loads and Effects ........................................................................... 8-12

8.6.2 Hydrostatic Loads ......................................................... 8-14

8.6.3 Hydrodynamic Loads ................................................... 8-16

8.6.4 Impulsive Forces........................................................... 8-17

8.6.5 Debris Impact Forces .................................................... 8-17

8.6.6 Damming of Accumulated Waterborne Debris ............ 8-19

8.6.7 Uplift Forces on Elevated Floors .................................. 8-19

8.6.8 Additional Retained Water Loading on Elevated Floors ............................................................................ 8-20

8.7 Combination of Tsunami Forces ............................................ 8-21

8.7.1 Tsunami Load Cases Acting on the Overall Structure ....................................................................... 8-21

8.7.2 Tsunami Load Cases Acting on Individual Components .................................................................. 8-22

8.8 Tsunami Load Combinations ................................................. 8-23

8.9 Progressive Collapse Considerations ..................................... 8-23

8.9.1 Department of Defense Methodology ......................... 8-24

8.9.2 General Services Administration Methodology .......... 8-26

8.10 Structural Countermeasures for Tsunami Load Effects ......... 8-27

8.10.1 Foundation Scour Design Concepts ............................ 8-27

8.10.2 Breakaway Wall Design Concepts .............................. 8-27

xii Table of Contents

FEMA P-646 Third Edition

9. Considerations for Existing Buildings ............................................ 9-1

9.1 Attributes of Tsunami-Resistant Structures .............................. 9-1

9.2 Criteria for Evaluation of Existing Buildings ........................... 9-1

9.3 Considerations for Existing Buildings ...................................... 9-2

9.3.1 Concepts for Retrofitting Existing Buildings .................. 9-4

9.4 Tsunami Refuge of Last Resort ................................................ 9-5

Appendix A: Vertical Evacuation Structure Examples ........................ A-1

Appendix B: Community Design Example ............................................ B-1

B.1 Site 1 Example: Escape Berm .................................................. B-3

B.2 Site 2 Example: Multi-Use Structure ....................................... B-6

Glossary ...................................................................................................... C-1

References .................................................................................................. D-1

Project Participants ................................................................................... E-1

 

Product Details

Availability Details:
In Stock
USA Price:
$40.00
International Price:
$56.00
Publisher:
Homeland Security Dept., Federal Emergency Management Agency
Key Phrases:
  • FEMA P 646
  • Evacuation From Tsunamis
  • Tsunamis
Weight:
1.3125
Quantity Price:
Discount
Cover:
Paper
Unit of Issue (US):
1
Unit of Issue (Non-US):
1
Record Creation Date:
09/27/2019
Last Status Update:
12/04/2019
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