A Guide to Identifying, Assessing, and Managing Hazard Trees in Developed Recreational Sites of the Northern Rocky Mountains and the Intermountain West

A Guide to Identifying, Assessing, and Managing Hazard Trees in Developed Recreational Sites of the Northern Rocky Mountains and the Intermountain West
Title:
A Guide to Identifying, Assessing, and Managing Hazard Trees in Developed Recreational Sites of the Northern Rocky Mountains and the Intermountain West
Format:
Spiral-bound
USA Price: 
Stock:
In stock
GPO Stock Number:
001-001-00713-7
ISBN:
9780160942860
Description

Direction on hazard tree management for USDA Forest Service developed recreation sites is found in Forest Service Manual section FSM 2332.13 where it states: “Consistent with preserving the recreation resource, remove trees or tree limbs identified as hazardous at developed recreation sites. Obtain assistance from timber management, forest pest management, and recreation specialists, as necessary”. By developing this guide, Forest Health Protection, formerly known as Forest Pest Management, provides managers of developed recreation areas with a process and sufficient background information to aid in recognizing, assessing, and making management decisions regarding hazard trees. The goal of hazard tree management is to minimize, to the extent practical and consistent with overall management objectives and constraints, the potential that trees at public sites will cause injury, death, or property damage. 

Table of Contents

Chapter 1.

Introduction .....................................................................................................................................................1

Purpose of Guide and Goal of Hazard Tree Management.............................................................................................1

Hazard Trees: Identification...........................................................................................................................................1

What Constitutes a Hazard? What is Risk?....................................................................................................................2

Chapter 2.

Components of Hazard Tree Ratings................................................................................................................3

Overview ........................................................................................................................................................................3

Hazard Tree Rating.........................................................................................................................................................3

What is Failure Potential?..............................................................................................................................................3

What is Damage Potential?............................................................................................................................................6

Rating Damage Potential ...............................................................................................................................................6

What are Potential Impact Zones and Target Value Scores?.........................................................................................6

Determining Potential Impact Zone for Tree or Tree Part Failure.................................................................................7

Chapter 3.

Planning and Documentation.........................................................................................................................10

Outline of the Process..................................................................................................................................................10

Other Factors Useful for Land Managers to Consider: Timing ....................................................................................10

Type and Intensity of Survey........................................................................................................................................10

Annual Survey: .........................................................................................................................................................10

Baseline Survey: .......................................................................................................................................................10

Ad hoc or “At Need” Surveys: ..................................................................................................................................10

Where to Survey ..........................................................................................................................................................11

How to Survey..............................................................................................................................................................11

Evaluate the site from a distance.............................................................................................................................11

Establish reference points........................................................................................................................................11

Examine the area around each tree.........................................................................................................................11

Begin systematic examination .................................................................................................................................11

Dead Trees ...........................................................................................................................................................12

Trees with Insufficient Remaining Wood Strength..............................................................................................12

Sound Wood.....................................................................................................................................................12

Sound Wood Shell............................................................................................................................................13

Measurement of Sound Wood Shell Thickness ...........................................................................................13

Proper Drilling Technique ............................................................................................................................14

Example Determination of Sound Wood Shell ............................................................................................14

Documentation ........................................................................................................................................................15

Mitigation.................................................................................................................................................................15

Hazard Tree Rating and Treatment Priority Classes ................................................................................................17

Chapter 4.

Identification of Defects and Diseases...........................................................................................................18

Dead Trees ................................................................................................................................................................... 18

Wounded Trees ........................................................................................................................................................... 19

Aggressive Root Diseases and Root and Butt Rots ...................................................................................................... 20

Conifers: Heterobasidion (Annosus) Root Disease..................................................................................................22

Conifers: Armillaria Root Disease ............................................................................................................................ 23

Conifers: Laminated Root Rot; Cedar Laminated Butt Rot...................................................................................... 24

Conifers: Schweinitzii Root and Butt Rot................................................................................................................. 25

Conifers: Tomentosus Root and Butt Rot ................................................................................................................ 26

Conifers: Yellow Root Rot or Stringy Butt Rot ......................................................................................................... 27

Ganoderma White Mottled Rot (Artist’s Conk) and Hemlock Varnish-Shelf Conk.................................................. 28

Other Root Problems...................................................................................................................................................29

Undermined Roots................................................................................................................................................... 29

Severed roots........................................................................................................................................................... 29

Loosened, Cracked, or Broken Roots; Leaning Trees............................................................................................... 30

Heart Rots .................................................................................................................................................................... 31

Hardwoods: Aspen Trunk Rot or Aspen Heart Rot .................................................................................................. 32

Hardwoods: Brown Cubical Rot of Birch (Birch Polypore)....................................................................................... 33

Hardwoods: White Spongy Trunk Rot (Tinder Conk)............................................................................................... 34

Hardwoods: Hardwood Trunk Rot (False Tinder Fungus)........................................................................................ 35

Hardwoods and Conifers: Brown Cubical Rot (Sulfur Shelf or “Chicken of the Woods”)........................................36

Conifers: Brown Top-rot (“Rose-colored Conk”) ..................................................................................................... 37

Conifers: Brown Trunk Rot (Quinine Conk or “Chalky Fungus”).............................................................................. 38

Conifer: Juniper Pocket Rot ..................................................................................................................................... 39

Conifers: Cedar Brown Pocket Rot or Redcedar Pencil Rot.....................................................................................40

Conifers: Red Heart Rot (Bleeding Stereum) ........................................................................................................... 41

Conifers: Red Ring Rot or White Speck (Pini Conk) ................................................................................................. 42

Conifers: Rust-red Stringy Rot (Indian Paint Fungus) .............................................................................................. 43

Sap Rots of Conifers.....................................................................................................................................................44

Conifers: Brown Crumbly Rot (Red-Belt Fungus)..................................................................................................... 45

Conifers: Gray-brown Sap Rot (Pouch Fungus)........................................................................................................ 46

Canker Diseases, General Information ........................................................................................................................ 47

Hardwoods: Sooty Bark Canker ............................................................................................................................... 48

Hardwoods: Snake (Cryptosphaeria) Canker-rot.....................................................................................................49

Hardwoods: Hypoxylon Canker ............................................................................................................................... 50

Hardwoods: Black canker ........................................................................................................................................ 51

Conifers: Atropellis Canker ...................................................................................................................................... 52

Conifers: Western Gall Rust.....................................................................................................................................53

All Trees, Bole Cracks and Splits...................................................................................................................................54

Tension and Compression Failure, Limbs.................................................................................................................54

Lightning Strikes.......................................................................................................................................................54

Cracks from Wind and Wind Shake..........................................................................................................................54

Frost Cracks..............................................................................................................................................................55

Structural Failure Cracks, Main Bole........................................................................................................................56

Forked Multiple Tops or Trunks (Conifers) ..................................................................................................................57

Dead Tops (Conifers)....................................................................................................................................................58

Dead or Defective Branches.........................................................................................................................................59

Branch Brooms (Conifers)............................................................................................................................................60

Fire-Caused Damage ....................................................................................................................................................61

Height to Diameter Ratios............................................................................................................................................62

Insect-caused Damage .................................................................................................................................................63

Interacting Indicators (Multiple Defects).....................................................................................................................64

Glossary............................................................................................................................................................................65

Appendix. Field Form and Instructions ............................................................................................................................69

Data Collection Fields...................................................................................................................................................69

Recommended Tools ...................................................................................................................................................69

Instructions for Completing Region 1 and 4 Tree Hazard Evaluation Form ................................................................69

Region 1 and 4

Tree Hazard Evaluation Form..............................................................................................................71 

Audience

Forect and tree management in the public federal,state, and private sector, swcholars and counsellors in the field of forestry management, users of camping, picnicking, mountains and the Intermountain activities.

Product Details

Availability Details:
In Stock
USA Price:
$36.00
International Price:
$50.40
Publisher:
Agriculture Dept., Forest Service, Forest Health Protection, Northern & Intermountain Regions
Notes:
Known as: Hazard Tree Guide.
Key Phrases:
  • RI 17 31
  • Forests and Forestry
  • Hazard Trees
  • Rocky Mountains
  • Guide to Identifying, Assessing, and Managing Hazard Trees
Weight:
0.6875
Quantity Price:
Discount
Cover:
Paper
Unit of Issue (US):
1
Unit of Issue (Non-US):
1
Item available Date:
12/22/2017
Last Status Update:
04/05/2018
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