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Environmental Impact Statement for the Construction Permit for the Northwest Medical Isotopes Radioisotope Production Facility Final Report

Title:
Environmental Impact Statement for the Construction Permit for the Northwest Medical Isotopes Radioisotope Production Facility Final Report
Format:
Paperback
USA Price: 
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In stock
GPO Stock Number:
052-021-02066-0
ISBN:
9780160939167
Description

The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has prepared this environmental impact statement (EIS) in response to an application submitted by Northwest Medical Isotopes, LLC (NWMI) for a construction permit for the NWMI medical radioisotope production facility. The EIS includes the analysis that evaluates the environmental impacts of the proposed action and considers the following alternatives to the proposed action: (1) the no-action alternative (i.e., the construction permit is denied), (2) one alternative site, and (3) two alternative technologies.

After weighing the environmental, economic, technical, and other benefits against environmental and other costs, and considering reasonable alternatives, the NRC staff's recommendation, unless safety issues mandate otherwise, is to issue a construction permit to NWMI. The NRC staff based its recommendation on the following factors:

  • the NRC staff's review of the NWMI Environmental Report and responses to requests for additional information;
  • the NRC staff's consultation with Federal, State, and local agencies and Tribal officials;
  • the NRC staff's independent environmental review; and
  • the NRC staff's consideration of public comments.

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Table of Contents

ABSTRACT.............................................................................................................................. iii

TABLE OF CONTENTS ............................................................................................................ v

LIST OF FIGURES .................................................................................................................. xv

LIST OF TABLES.................................................................................................................. xvii

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY ........................................................................................................ xxi

ABBREVIATIONS AND ACRONYMS ................................................................................... xxv

1.0 INTRODUCTION......................................................................................................... 1-1

1.1 Background...................................................................................................... 1-1

1.2 Proposed Federal Action.................................................................................. 1-2

1.3 Purpose and Need for the Proposed Federal Action ........................................ 1-3

1.4 U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission Environmental Review.......................... 1-3

1.5 Scope of the EIS.............................................................................................. 1-6

1.6 Preconstruction Activities ................................................................................. 1-6

1.7 Consultation and Correspondence................................................................... 1-7

1.8 Status of Compliance....................................................................................... 1-9

2.0 PROPOSED FEDERAL ACTION................................................................................ 2-1

2.1 Site Location and Layout.................................................................................. 2-1

2.2 Construction Activities...................................................................................... 2-4

2.3 Facility Operations ........................................................................................... 2-5

2.3.1 Radioisotope Production Process Overview ...................................... 2-7

2.3.1.1 LEU Target Fabrication .................................................... 2-9

2.3.1.2 LEU Target Irradiation.................................................... 2-10

2.3.1.3 Irradiated Target Disassembly and Dissolution............... 2-11

2.3.1.4 Mo-99 Extraction, Purification, and Shipping .................. 2-11

2.3.1.5 Uranium Recovery and Recycle ..................................... 2-11

2.4 Power Requirements ..................................................................................... 2-12

2.5 Water Use, Treatment, and Discharges ......................................................... 2-12

2.5.1 Water Use ....................................................................................... 2-12

2.5.2 Water Treatment ............................................................................. 2-13

2.5.3 Water Discharges............................................................................ 2-14

2.6 Cooling and Heating Dissipation Systems...................................................... 2-14

2.6.1 Cooling Systems ............................................................................. 2-14

2.6.2 Heating Systems ............................................................................. 2-14

2.7 Production and Processing of Radioactive and Nonradioactive Waste........... 2-15

2.7.1 Radioactive Waste........................................................................... 2-15

2.7.1.1 Gaseous Waste.............................................................. 2-15

2.7.1.2 Liquid and Solid Waste................................................... 2-16

2.7.2 Nonradioactive Waste ..................................................................... 2-17

2.7.2.1 Liquid Waste .................................................................. 2-17

2.7.2.2 Solid Waste.................................................................... 2-18

2.7.3 Waste Minimization and Pollution Prevention Program.................... 2-19

2.8 Storage and Transportation of Radioactive and Nonradioactive

Materials and Waste ...................................................................................... 2-19

2.8.1 Storage and Transportation ............................................................. 2-20

2.8.1.1 Radioactive Waste and Other Materials ......................... 2-20

2.8.1.2 Nonradioactive Waste and Other Materials .................... 2-21

2.9 Facility Decommissioning............................................................................... 2-21

3.0 AFFECTED ENVIRONMENT ...................................................................................... 3-1

3.1 Land Use and Visual Resources...................................................................... 3-1

3.1.1 Land Use........................................................................................... 3-1

3.1.1.1 Site and Immediate Surroundings .................................... 3-1

3.1.1.2 Vicinity ............................................................................. 3-2

3.1.1.3 Special Land Uses ........................................................... 3-4

3.1.1.4 Agricultural Resources and Facilities................................ 3-5

3.1.2 Visual Resources............................................................................... 3-5

3.2 Meteorology, Air Quality, and Noise............................................................... 3-11

3.2.1 Meteorology and Climatology .......................................................... 3-11

3.2.2 Air Quality........................................................................................ 3-12

3.2.3 Noise............................................................................................... 3-16

3.3 Geologic Environment.................................................................................... 3-18

3.3.1 Site Geology.................................................................................... 3-18

3.3.2 Soils ................................................................................................ 3-24

3.3.3 Seismic Setting................................................................................ 3-25

3.4 Water Resources ........................................................................................... 3-26

3.4.1 Surface Water ................................................................................. 3-27

3.4.1.1 Surface Water Hydrology ............................................... 3-27

3.4.1.2 Surface Water Quality and Use ...................................... 3-29

3.4.2 Groundwater.................................................................................... 3-32

3.4.2.1 Site Description and Hydrogeology ................................ 3-32

3.4.2.2 Groundwater Quality and Use ........................................ 3-35

3.5 Ecological Resources .................................................................................... 3-37

3.5.1 Ecoregion ........................................................................................ 3-37

3.5.2 Habitats in the Vicinity of the Proposed Site .................................... 3-37

3.5.3 Site.................................................................................................. 3-40

3.5.4 Protected Species and Habitats....................................................... 3-42

3.5.4.1 Endangered Species Act................................................ 3-42

3.5.4.2 State-listed Species ....................................................... 3-43

3.5.4.3 Migratory Bird Treaty Act................................................ 3-45

3.5.4.4 Magnuson–Stevens Fishery Conservation and

Management Act............................................................ 3-46

3.5.4.5 State Parks and Conservation Areas.............................. 3-46

3.6 Historic and Cultural Resources..................................................................... 3-47

3.6.1 Cultural Background........................................................................ 3-47

3.6.1.1 Paleo-Indian Period (11,500 to 9,900 B.P.) .................... 3-48

3.6.1.2 Archaic Period (9,900 to 3,000 B.P.) .............................. 3-48

3.6.1.3 Woodland Period (3,000 to 1,000 B.P.).......................... 3-48

3.6.1.4 Mississippian Period (1,000 to 400 B.P.)........................ 3-49

3.6.1.5 Protohistoric/Historic Period (400 B.P. to Recent

History) .......................................................................... 3-49

3.6.1.6 Recent History – Columbia............................................. 3-50

3.6.1.7 Recent History – Discovery Ridge.................................. 3-50

3.6.2 Historic and Cultural Resources ...................................................... 3-51

3.7 Socioeconomics............................................................................................. 3-51

3.7.1 Population Growth Rates and Projections ....................................... 3-52

3.7.2 Race and Ethnicity........................................................................... 3-52

3.7.3 Transient Population........................................................................ 3-54

3.7.4 Labor Force, Employment, and Unemployment............................... 3-54

3.7.5 Income and Wages and Poverty...................................................... 3-55

3.7.6 Housing ........................................................................................... 3-56

3.7.7 Local Employers.............................................................................. 3-56

3.7.8 Taxes .............................................................................................. 3-57

3.7.9 Education ........................................................................................ 3-57

3.7.10 Public Recreation for Boone County................................................ 3-57

3.7.11 Public Services................................................................................ 3-59

3.8 Human Health................................................................................................ 3-60

3.8.1 Sensitive Receptors......................................................................... 3-60

3.8.2 Radiation and Nuclear Hazards....................................................... 3-61

3.8.2.1 Pathways for Human Exposure to Radiation and

Radioactivity................................................................... 3-61

3.8.2.2 Major Sources and Levels of Radiation .......................... 3-62

3.8.2.3 Regulations Governing Dose from Human-Made

Sources of Radiation...................................................... 3-63

3.8.3 Chemical Hazards ........................................................................... 3-64

3.8.4 Other Hazards ................................................................................. 3-65

3.9 Transportation Environments ......................................................................... 3-65

3.9.1 Roads.............................................................................................. 3-65

3.9.2 Airports............................................................................................ 3-66

3.9.3 Rail.................................................................................................. 3-66

3.10 Research Reactors ........................................................................................ 3-67

3.10.1 University of Missouri Research Reactor......................................... 3-67

3.10.2 Oregon State University Research Reactor..................................... 3-71

3.10.3 Third Research Reactor................................................................... 3-73

4.0 ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS OF CONSTRUCTION, OPERATIONS, AND

DECOMMISSIONING.................................................................................................. 4-1

4.1 Land Use and Visual Resources...................................................................... 4-2

4.1.1 Land Use........................................................................................... 4-2

4.1.1.1 Construction..................................................................... 4-2

4.1.1.2 Operations ....................................................................... 4-3

4.1.1.3 Decommissioning............................................................. 4-3

4.1.2 Visual Resources............................................................................... 4-3

4.1.2.1 Construction..................................................................... 4-3

4.1.2.2 Operations ....................................................................... 4-4

4.1.2.3 Impacts from Decommissioning ....................................... 4-5

4.2 Air Quality and Noise ....................................................................................... 4-5

4.2.1 Air Quality.......................................................................................... 4-5

4.2.1.1 Construction..................................................................... 4-5

4.2.1.2 Operations ....................................................................... 4-7

4.2.1.3 Decommissioning............................................................. 4-9

4.2.2 Noise................................................................................................. 4-9

4.2.2.1 Construction..................................................................... 4-9

4.2.2.2 Operations ..................................................................... 4-10

4.2.2.3 Decommissioning........................................................... 4-10

4.3 Geologic Environment.................................................................................... 4-11

4.3.1 Construction .................................................................................... 4-11

4.3.2 Operations....................................................................................... 4-13

4.3.3 Decommissioning ............................................................................ 4-14

4.4 Water Resources ........................................................................................... 4-14

4.4.1 Surface Water ................................................................................. 4-14

4.4.1.1 Construction................................................................... 4-14

4.4.1.2 Operations ..................................................................... 4-16

4.4.1.3 Decommissioning........................................................... 4-17

4.4.2 Groundwater.................................................................................... 4-18

4.4.2.1 Construction................................................................... 4-18

4.4.2.2 Operations ..................................................................... 4-19

4.4.2.3 Decommissioning........................................................... 4-20

4.5 Ecological Resources .................................................................................... 4-21

4.5.1 Construction .................................................................................... 4-21

4.5.2 Operations....................................................................................... 4-22

4.5.3 Decommissioning ............................................................................ 4-23

4.5.4 Federally Protected Species............................................................ 4-23

4.6 Historic and Cultural Resources..................................................................... 4-24

4.6.1 Historic and Cultural Resources ...................................................... 4-24

4.6.2 Proposed Action .............................................................................. 4-24

4.6.3 Consultation .................................................................................... 4-24

4.6.3.1 Construction................................................................... 4-26

4.6.3.2 Operations ..................................................................... 4-26

4.6.3.3 Decommissioning........................................................... 4-27

4.7 Socioeconomic Impacts ................................................................................. 4-27

4.7.1 Construction .................................................................................... 4-27

4.7.1.1 Employment ................................................................... 4-27

4.7.1.2 Housing.......................................................................... 4-27

4.7.1.3 Tax Revenue.................................................................. 4-27

4.7.1.4 Public and Educational Services .................................... 4-28

4.7.1.5 Summary of Construction Impacts.................................. 4-28

4.7.2 Operations....................................................................................... 4-28

4.7.2.1 Employment ................................................................... 4-28

4.7.2.2 Housing.......................................................................... 4-28

4.7.2.3 Tax Revenue.................................................................. 4-28

4.7.2.4 Public and Educational Services .................................... 4-29

4.7.2.5 Summary of Operations Impacts .................................... 4-29

4.7.3 Decommissioning ............................................................................ 4-29

4.7.3.1 Employment ................................................................... 4-29

4.7.3.2 Housing.......................................................................... 4-29

4.7.3.3 Tax Revenue.................................................................. 4-29

4.7.3.4 Public and Educational Services .................................... 4-30

4.7.3.5 Summary of Decommissioning Impacts ......................... 4-30

4.8 Human Health................................................................................................ 4-30

4.8.1 Construction .................................................................................... 4-30

4.8.1.1 Radiological ................................................................... 4-30

4.8.1.2 Nonradiological .............................................................. 4-30

4.8.2 Operations....................................................................................... 4-31

4.8.2.1 Radiological ................................................................... 4-31

4.8.2.2 Nonradiological .............................................................. 4-34

4.8.3 Decommissioning ............................................................................ 4-35

4.8.3.1 Radiological ................................................................... 4-35

4.8.3.2 Nonradiological .............................................................. 4-35

4.9 Waste Management....................................................................................... 4-36

4.9.1 Radioactive Waste........................................................................... 4-36

4.9.2 Nonradioactive Waste ..................................................................... 4-38

4.10 Transportation................................................................................................ 4-38

4.10.1 Construction .................................................................................... 4-39

4.10.2 Operations....................................................................................... 4-39

4.10.3 Decommissioning ............................................................................ 4-40

4.11 Accidents ....................................................................................................... 4-40

4.11.1 Radiological Accidents .................................................................... 4-41

4.11.2 Hazardous Chemical Accidents....................................................... 4-45

4.12 Environmental Justice.................................................................................... 4-49

4.12.1 Construction .................................................................................... 4-54

4.12.2 Operations....................................................................................... 4-54

4.12.3 Decommissioning ............................................................................ 4-55

4.13 Research Reactors ........................................................................................ 4-55

4.13.1 University of Missouri Research Reactor Site.................................. 4-55

4.13.1.1 Facility Modifications and Equipment Refurbishment...... 4-55

4.13.1.2 Irradiation Services ........................................................ 4-56

4.13.2 Oregon State University TRIGA Reactor Site .................................. 4-58

4.13.2.1 Facility Modifications and Equipment Refurbishment...... 4-58

4.13.2.2 Irradiation Services ........................................................ 4-59

4.13.3 Third Research Reactor................................................................... 4-62

4.13.3.1 Facility Modifications and Equipment Refurbishment...... 4-62

4.13.3.2 Irradiation Services ........................................................ 4-62

4.14 Cumulative Impacts ....................................................................................... 4-65

4.14.1 Land Use and Visual Resources...................................................... 4-70

4.14.1.1 Land Use........................................................................ 4-70

4.14.1.2 Visual Resources ........................................................... 4-71

4.14.2 Air Quality and Noise....................................................................... 4-71

4.14.2.1 Air Quality ...................................................................... 4-72

4.14.2.2 Noise.............................................................................. 4-73

4.14.3 Geologic Environment ..................................................................... 4-73

4.14.4 Water Resources............................................................................. 4-75

4.14.4.1 Surface Water................................................................ 4-75

4.14.4.2 Groundwater .................................................................. 4-78

4.14.5 Ecological Resources ...................................................................... 4-79

4.14.6 Historic and Cultural Resources ...................................................... 4-80

4.14.7 Socioeconomics .............................................................................. 4-81

4.14.8 Human Health ................................................................................. 4-81

4.14.8.1 Radiological Impacts ...................................................... 4-82

4.14.8.2 Nonradiological Impacts ................................................. 4-83

4.14.9 Waste Management ........................................................................ 4-84

4.14.9.1 Radioactive Waste ......................................................... 4-84

4.14.9.2 Nonradioactive Waste .................................................... 4-85

4.14.10 Accidents......................................................................................... 4-86

4.14.10.1 Radiological Accidents ................................................... 4-86

4.14.10.2 Nonradiological Accidents .............................................. 4-87

4.14.11 Transportation ................................................................................. 4-87

4.14.12 Environmental Justice ..................................................................... 4-88

4.14.13 Summary......................................................................................... 4-89

5.0 ALTERNATIVES......................................................................................................... 5-1

5.1 No-Action Alternative ....................................................................................... 5-2

5.2 Alternative Sites............................................................................................... 5-2

5.2.1 Description of Alternative Site-Selection Process .............................. 5-2

5.2.1.1 Initial Site Screening ........................................................ 5-2

5.2.1.2 Secondary Screening....................................................... 5-3

5.2.2 University of Missouri Research Reactor Alternative Site .................. 5-7

5.2.2.1 Land Use and Visual Resources ...................................... 5-8

5.2.2.2 Air Quality and Noise...................................................... 5-10

5.2.2.3 Geologic Environment.................................................... 5-13

5.2.2.4 Water Resources ........................................................... 5-17

5.2.2.5 Ecological Resources..................................................... 5-22

5.2.2.6 Historic and Cultural Resources ..................................... 5-24

5.2.2.7 Socioeconomics............................................................. 5-26

5.2.2.8 Human Health ................................................................ 5-26

5.2.2.9 Waste Management ....................................................... 5-27

5.2.2.10 Transportation................................................................ 5-28

5.2.2.11 Accidents ....................................................................... 5-30

5.2.2.12 Environmental Justice .................................................... 5-31

5.2.2.13 Cumulative Impacts........................................................ 5-36

5.3 Alternative Technologies................................................................................ 5-53

5.3.1 Description of Alternative Technology Screening Process............... 5-53

5.3.1.1 Initial Screening.............................................................. 5-53

5.3.1.2 Secondary Screening..................................................... 5-55

5.3.2 Linear Accelerator-Based Technology............................................. 5-55

5.3.2.1 Land Use and Visual Resources .................................... 5-56

5.3.2.2 Air Quality and Noise...................................................... 5-56

5.3.2.3 Geologic Environment.................................................... 5-59

5.3.2.4 Water Resources ........................................................... 5-61

5.3.2.5 Ecological Resources..................................................... 5-64

5.3.2.6 Historic and Cultural Resources ..................................... 5-64

5.3.2.7 Socioeconomics............................................................. 5-64

5.3.2.8 Human Health ................................................................ 5-65

5.3.2.9 Waste Management ....................................................... 5-65

5.3.2.10 Transportation................................................................ 5-66

5.3.2.11 Accidents ....................................................................... 5-66

5.3.2.12 Environmental Justice .................................................... 5-67

5.3.2.13 Cumulative Impacts........................................................ 5-68

5.3.3 Subcritical Fission Technology ........................................................ 5-68

5.3.3.1 Land Use and Visual Resources .................................... 5-69

5.3.3.2 Air Quality and Noise...................................................... 5-69

5.3.3.3 Geologic Environment.................................................... 5-72

5.3.3.4 Water Resources ........................................................... 5-74

5.3.3.5 Ecological Resources..................................................... 5-77

5.3.3.6 Historic and Cultural Resources ..................................... 5-78

5.3.3.7 Socioeconomics............................................................. 5-78

5.3.3.8 Human Health ................................................................ 5-78

5.3.3.9 Waste Management ....................................................... 5-79

5.3.3.10 Transportation................................................................ 5-80

5.3.3.11 Accidents ....................................................................... 5-80

5.3.3.12 Environmental Justice .................................................... 5-81

5.3.3.13 Cumulative Impacts........................................................ 5-81

5.4 Cost-Benefit Comparison............................................................................... 5-81

5.4.1 Benefit and Costs of Alternatives..................................................... 5-85

5.4.2 Cost-Benefit Conclusions ................................................................ 5-87

5.5 Alternatives Summary.................................................................................... 5-88

6.0 CONCLUSIONS.......................................................................................................... 6-1

6.1 Environmental Impacts of the Proposed Action................................................ 6-1

6.2 Comparison of Alternatives .............................................................................. 6-4

6.3 Resource Commitments................................................................................... 6-5

6.3.1 Unavoidable Adverse Impacts ........................................................... 6-5

6.3.2 Relationship Between Local Short-Term Uses of the

Environment and the Maintenance and Enhancement of LongTerm

Productivity............................................................................... 6-9

6.3.3 Irreversible and Irretrievable Commitment of Resources ................. 6-10

6.3.4 Unresolved Conflicts........................................................................ 6-11

6.4 Recommendation........................................................................................... 6-11

7.0 REFERENCES............................................................................................................ 7-1

8.0 LIST OF PREPARERS ............................................................................................... 8-1

9.0 DISTRIBUTION LIST OF AGENCIES, ORGANIZATIONS, AND PERSONS

TO WHOM COPIES OF THIS ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT STATEMENT ARE

SENT........................................................................................................................... 9-1

INDEX

APPENDICES

Audience

Policymakers and members of government and government agencies involved with environmental preservation and protection, environmental epidemiology, public transportation, emergency preparedness and public safety, and American Indian Tribal leaders may be interested in this publication.

Product Details

Availability Details:
In Stock
USA Price:
$80.00
International Price:
$112.00
Publisher:
Nuclear Regulatory Commission
Year/Pages:
2017: 444 pages.
Notes:
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Key Phrases:
  • NUREG 2209
  • Missouri
  • Northwest Medical Isotopes Radioisotope Production Facility
Weight:
2.3125
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Cover:
Paper
Unit of Issue (US):
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Unit of Issue (Non-US):
1
Item available Date:
05/16/2017
Last Status Update:
09/08/2017
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