Tobacco- Free health effects, nicotine

The Health Consequences of Smoking—50 Years of Progress. A Report of the Surgeon General. Supplemental Evidence Tables (ePub eBook)

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Description

This is a supplement to the full report, The Health Consequences of Smoking--50 Years of Progress. A Report of the Surgeon General. This supplement contains evidence tables detailing the studies that were used to evaluate the evidence to assess causality in Chapters 6-11. The tables included in the supplement are indicated with an “S” where they are called out in the full report.

The release of this report is in coordination of the 50th Anniversary of the first Surgeon General’s report on smoking and health.

Table of Contents

Supplemental Evidence Tables

Chapter 6. Cancer
Table 6.3S Case-control studies on smoking and primary liver cancer
Table 6.4S Cohort studies on smoking and primary liver cancer
Table 6.5S Prospective studies of cigarette smoking and colorectal cancer incidence, published 2002–2009
Table 6.6S Case-control studies of cigarette smoking and colorectal cancer incidence, published 2001–2008
Table 6.7S Prospective studies of cigarette smoking and colorectal cancer mortality, published 2002–2009
Table 6.8S Prospective cohort studies on the association between cigarette smoking and prostate cancer incidence and mortality
Table 6.9S Epidemiologic cross-sectional studies on the association between cigarette smoking and stage and histologic grade at diagnosis of prostate cancer
Table 6.10S Cohort studies on the association between cigarette smoking and risk of prostate cancer progression, case fatality, and all-cause mortality in men with prostate cancer
Table 6.11S Reports on levels of endogenous hormones and smoking in premenopausal women (n = 22)
Table 6.12S Reports on levels of endogenous hormones and smoking in postmenopausal women (n = 17)
Table 6.14S Cohort study reports of the association between active cigarette smoking and risk of breast cancer, based on studies published before 2012 (n = 15)
Table 6.15S Case-control study reports of the association between active cigarette smoking and risk for breast cancer, based on studies published from 2000 to 2011 (n = 34)
Table 6.16S Evaluation of reports on exposure to active cigarette smoking for meta-analyses, based on cohort studies before 2012 and case-control studies published between 2000 and 2011 for meta-analyses, by location, study design, size of analytic sample, type of referent group, meta-analysis categories, and design or analysis issues (n = 65)
Table 6.17S Summary of meta-analyses for measures of active cigarette smoking for all studies combined and stratified by study design, based on cohort studies published before 2012 and case-control studies published from 2000 to 2011
Table 6.18S Reports of premenopausal and postmenopausal relative risks (RRs) by study and meta-analysis RRs for the association of active smoking (ever, pack-years) with risk for breast cancer, based on cohort studies published before 2012 and case-control studies published from 2000 to 2011 (n = 20)
Table 6.19S Reports of estrogen receptor status relative risks (RRs) for the association of active cigarette smoking (ever, cigarettes/day) with risk for breast cancer, based on cohort studies published before 2012 and case-control studies published from 2000 to 2011 (n = 17)
Table 6.20S Reports on the association between active cigarette smoking and risk of a second primary contralateral breast cancer (n = 7)
Table 6.21S Modification of risk for breast cancer associated with smoking by NAT2 phenotype, based on two meta-analyses and one pooled analysis, stratified by menopausal status
Table 6.22S Reports on cohort studies of the association between exposure to secondhand smoke and relative risk (RR) for breast cancer incidence, based on studies published before 2012 included in the 2006 Surgeon General’s report (n = 7)
Table 6.23S Reports on case-control studies of the association between exposure to secondhand smoke and relative risk (RR) for breast cancer incidence, based on studies published before 2012 but not included in the 2006 Surgeon General’s report (n = 11)
Table 6.24S Evaluation of reports on exposure to secondhand smoke among 171 nonsmokers, based on 10 cohort and 24 case-control studies of breast cancer published before 2012 for meta-analyses, by location, study design, analytic sample size, meta-analysis categories, and design or analysis issues (n = 39)
Table 6.25S Summary of meta-analyses for the broadest categories of exposure to secondhand smoke (adult–any source, ever in lifetime, most comprehensive) for all studies of breast cancer combined and stratified by menopausal status, based on cohort and case-control studies published before 2012
Table 6.26S Summary of meta-analyses for specific categories of exposure to secondhand smoke (spouse, home, workplace, childhood, childhood and adulthood) for all studies of breast cancer combined and stratified by menopausal status, based on cohort and case-control studies published before 2012
Table 6.27S Comparison of relative risks (RRs) from selected summaries of meta-analyses for active smoking versus exposure to secondhand smoke for all studies of breast cancer combined and stratified by study design, based on cohort and case-control studies published before 2012
Table 6.28S Associations between smoking and overall mortality in cancer patients
Table 6.29S Associations between smoking and overall survival in cancer patients
Table 6.30S Associations between smoking and cancer-related mortality
Table 6.31S Associations between smoking and developing a second primary cancer in cancer patients
Table 6.32S Associations between smoking and cancer recurrence
Table 6.33S Associations between smoking and cancer response
Table 6.34S Associations between smoking and treatment-related toxicity in cancer patients

Chapter 7. Respiratory Diseases
Table 7.2S Population-based cohort studies of cigarette smoking and asthma induction in children and adolescents
Table 7.3S Studies of cigarette smoking and asthma induction in adults
Table 7.4S Studies of cigarette smoking, exacerbation of asthma, and natural history in adults
Table 7.5S Studies on tobacco use and tuberculosis (TB) infection
Table 7.6S Studies on tobacco use and tuberculosis (TB) disease
Table 7.7S Studies on tobacco use and recurrent tuberculosis (TB)
Table 7.8S Studies on tobacco use and tuberculosis (TB) mortality
Table 7.10S Studies of risk of cigarette smoking and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), 1990–2011

Chapter 8. Cardiovascular Diseases
Table 8.6S Detailed description of studies on smokefree laws and coronary events
Table 8.7S Detailed description of studies on smokefree laws and cerebrovascular accidents
Table 8.8S Detailed description of studies on the relationship between smokefree laws and other heart disease

Chapter 9. Reproductive Outcomes
Table 9.3S Summary of studies of orofacial clefts and maternal smoking, 2002–2011
Table 9.4S Summary of studies of maternal smoking and clubfoot, 1999–2011
Table 9.5S Summary of studies of maternal smoking and gastroschisis, 1999–2011
Table 9.6S Summary of studies of maternal smoking and congenital heart defects, 1999–2011
Table 9.7S Summary of studies of maternal smoking and craniosynostosis, 1999–2011
Table 9.8S Summary of studies of maternal smoking and anorectal atresia, 1999–2011
Table 9.10S Studies on associations between prenatal smoking and disruptive behavioral in children, 2000–2012
Table 9.11S Studies on associations between prenatal smoking and anxiety and depression in children, 2000–2012
Table 9.12S Studies on the associations between prenatal smoking and Tourette syndrome in children, 2000–2011
Table 9.13S Studies on associations between prenatal smoking and intellectual disability in children, 2000–2009
Table 9.14S Association between maternal smoking and ectopic pregnancy, studies included in 2001–2010 Surgeon General’s reports and subsequently published through March 2013
Table 9.15S Studies on the effect of maternal active smoking on spontaneous abortion (SAB) risk
Table 9.16S Experimental studies of the association between smoking and erectile dysfunction
Table 9.17S Cross-sectional studies of the association between smoking and the risk of erectile dysfunction

Chapter 10. Other Specific Outcomes
Table 10.1S Summary of evidence from case-control studies on the association between smoking and age-related macular degeneration (AMD)
Table 10.2S Summary of evidence from cross-sectional studies on the association between smoking and age-related macular degeneration (AMD)
Table 10.3S Summary of evidence from prospective cohort studies on the association between smoking and age-related macular degeneration (AMD)
Table 10.4S Summary of evidence from other types of studies on the association between smoking and age-related macular degeneration (AMD)
Table 10.5S Studies on the association between active smoking and dental caries
Table 10.6S Studies on exposure to tobacco smoke and dental caries
Table 10.7S Studies on smoking and failure of dental implants
Table 10.8S Characteristics of studies included in the meta-analysis on smoking and diabetes
Table 10.14S Studies on the association between smoking and rheumatoid arthritis (RA) risk
Table 10.15S Studies on the association between smoking and rheumatoid arthritis (RA) severity
Table 10.16S Studies on the association between smoking and rheumatoid arthritis (RA) treatment response
Table 10.17S Studies on the association between smoking and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) risk
Table 10.18S Studies on the association between smoking and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) severity and manifestations
Table 10.19S Studies on smoking and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) treatment response
Table 10.20S Characteristics of the studies on the effects of current smoking on Crohn’s disease or ulcerative colitis
Table 10.21S Characteristics of the studies on the effects of former smoking on Crohn’s disease or ulcerative colitis

Chapter 11. General Morbidity and All-Cause Mortality
Table 11.1S Studies on the association between smoking and all-cause mortality
Table 11.2S Studies on the association between smoking and poor general health
Table 11.3S Studies on the association between smoking and relative risk of poor functional status 
Table 11.4S Studies on the association between smoking and SF-36 or SF-12 scores
Table 11.5S Studies on the association between smoking and other measures of health and function
Table 11.6S Studies on the association between smoking and hospitalizations
Table 11.7S Studies on the association between smoking and outpatient visits
Table 11.8S Studies on the association between smoking and nursing home stays
Table 11.9S Studies on the association between smoking and costs
Table 11.10S Annual per capita spending on health care, by smoking status and age group (2008 dollars)
Table 11.11S Studies on the association between smoking and workplace absenteeism (days absent)
Table 11.12S Studies on the association between smoking and relative risk of workplace absenteeism

About the Agency

As the Nation’s Doctor, the Surgeon General provides Americans with the best scientific information available on how to improve their health and reduce the risk of illness and injury. Some of the Surgeon General’s most important tools are comprehensive scientific reports on specific health issues, such as this report on smoking and health.

 

Keywords: Smoking; Tobacco addiction; Secondhand smoke; Nicotine; Surgeon General of the United States of America; Smoking-related diseases;Smoking statistics; Tobacco-use data;Case studies associated with smoking and tobacco/nicotine use

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GPO Stock Number:
017-300-00012-1
ISBN:
9780160924163
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US Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Prevention and Control
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US Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
Year/Pages:
2014/58 pages
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Key Phrases:
Smoking, Tobacco-Free, Second-hand smoke, nicotine, addiction
tobacco-related diseases -- cancer, respiratory diseases, asthma,
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Item Available Date:
05/15/2014
Last Status Update:
05/20/2014